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A Method for Determining Size and Burial Depth of Landmines Using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Jay A. Marble, Veridian, Ann Arbor, MI Andrew E. Yagle, University of Michigan. OVERVIEW OF TALK. GOAL: Size and burial depth of landmines USING: Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

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a method for determining size and burial depth of landmines using ground penetrating radar gpr
A Method for Determining Size and Burial Depth of Landmines Using Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Jay A. Marble, Veridian, Ann Arbor, MI

Andrew E. Yagle, University of Michigan

overview of talk
OVERVIEW OF TALK
  • GOAL: Size and burial depth of landmines
  • USING: Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)
  • METHOD: Range-Migration Alg. (RMA)
  • VALIDATION: 10 signatures of actual Russian TM-62M landmines (Army MHK)
  • RESULTS: Consistent ability to determine: burial depth; diameter; height of landmines
objectives of algorithm
Objectives of Algorithm
  • Avoid false alarms (use up ceramic disks)
  • Depth important (mines at most 6” deep)
  • Size important (used ordnance strewn over)
  • Metal detectors not enough; need more specific information about possible mines
battlefield vehicle prototype
Battlefield Vehicle Prototype
  • Army Night Vision Electronic Science
  • GPR, metal detector, infrared camera
  • Robot arm will mark mine locations with ceramic disks (arm is not shown at right)
ground penetrating radar gpr
Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)
  • Mine Hunter/Killer: Designed by BAE;
  • $:Army Night Vision Lab (Fort Belvoir VA)
  • 20 transmit/receive antenna pairs in front
  • 256 frequencies; 500 Mhz to about 2 MHz; stepped by 5 MHz
depth processing of data
Depth Processing of Data
  • Continuous-wave stepped-frequency response
  • Direct measurement of transfer function
  • Sample every 2 inches in vehicle motion direction
fourier transform fft
Fourier Transform (FFT)
  • Response(frequency) is r(f):
  • Dwell time (one f)=0.15us;
  • Penetration depth=7m (ε=9)
  • Step size so no depth aliasing=1.1 MHz
hyperbola azimuth along track
Hyperbola: azimuth (along track)

Buried point target located at (x0,z0).

Antenna located along track at (x,0).

significance of hyperbola
Significance of Hyperbola
  • Avoids false alarms due to clutter and noise
  • Stratified ground appears as straight line
  • Hyperbola indicates real, localized target
  • Hyperbola indicates its depth, as well
range migration algorithm rma
Range Migration Algorithm (RMA)
  • Originally: Seismic imaging for oil domes
  • “Migration” since images in raw data are “migrated” to their correct locations
  • Later: adapted to SAR by Italians
  • Frequency-domain migration: 1978 (Stolt)
range migration equations
Range Migration Equations

D(kx,kz)=R(kx,w)=2-D space-time Fourier of r(x,t)

experimental validation data
Experimental Validation: Data
  • TM-62M anti-tank mine; buried 4”-8”
  • 6” high=3 pixels@2” for 500 MHz-2 GHz
  • Measured signature in Virginia clay (lossy) from MH/K above
  • System calibration off
experimental validation result
Experimental Validation: Result

Image: top and bottom of mine (7” apart, 10” long)

Shadow region between (radar can’t penetrate mine)

Depth of top line=6”=correct depth of buried mine

Need to estimate permittivity so flat top & bottom

Thresholding for binary image makes image clearer

experimental validation result15
Experimental Validation: Result

10 signatures from same TM-62M mine using MH/K

Fairly consistent (a few outliers); biased slightly high

Unknown ground truth permittivity a likely problem:

Different in free space, underground, in mine itself

present work on landmines
Present Work on Landmines
  • Issue: detection performance post-migration (easier to look for parallel straight lines) vs. detection performance w/pre-migration data (harder to look for hyperbolae, but apply to raw data before migration processing)
  • Issue: how to look for lines or hyperbolae
  • Issue: how to combine with other modalities
slide17

OBJECTIVE

ILLUSTRATION

Determine size and depth of landmines using GPR as part of a multimodal detection algorithm

APPROACH

ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Range Migration and phase compensation; Stoltz interpolation

Successful detection of Russian mines buried in field from NVESD MH/K

range migration algorithm experiment
RANGE MIGRATION ALGORITHM: EXPERIMENT

USSR TM-62 LAND MINE

Army NVESD MH/K

Imaging a single point

Point-spread response

range migration algorithm results
RANGE MIGRATION ALGORITHM: RESULTS

TM-62 measured (6” depth)

TM-62 binary reconstructed