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Shallow reservoir analogues: Comparison of seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging Roger Young Associate Professor of Geophysics OU. • GPR uses wavefield processing similar to seismic methods • My students have mostly been MS and/or undergraduates • Field projects,

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Shallow reservoir analogues:

Comparison of

seismic and

ground penetrating radar (GPR)

imaging

Roger Young

Associate Professor of Geophysics

OU


GPR uses wavefield processing similar to seismic methods

• My students have mostly been MS and/or undergraduates

• Field projects,

data reduction using commercial software

(mostly Ekko-Pro, SPW, ProMAX, Kingdom Suite)

• Early proponent of 3D GPR surveys


Young, R.A., Deng, Z., Marfurt, K.J., Nissen, S.E, 1996, 3-D dip filtering and coherence appliedto GPR data: A study, The Leading Edge, 1011-1018.

Significance: Seismic attributes characterize fluvial-deltaic channels

on 3D GPR data


-Data available-

S

N

E

NW

SE

NW

SE

Correa-Correa, H., Young, R.A., Slatt, R.M., 2006, 3-D Characterization of a channel system in an outcrop reservoir analog derived from GPR and measured sections, Rattlesnake Ridge, Wyoming, SEG Expanded Abstract


-Results: Synthetic tie-

Significance: Interfaces identified on the measured sections can be correlated with GPR data through synthetic radargrams



Young, R.A., complicated fence diagramStaggs, J.G., and Slatt, R.M., van Dam, R., 2007, Application of 1-D convolutional modeling to interpretation of GPR profiles –turbidite Sandstone 1, Lewis shale, Wyoming, JEEG, 12, 3, 241-254.

Significance: Convolutional modeling constrained by lab and outcrop measurements identifies GPR reflection events


Ramirez, D. M complicated fence diagram., Young, R.A, 2007, Fracture orientation determination in sedimentary rocks using multicomponent GPR measurements, The Leading Edge, 1010-1016.



Geerdes, I fracture orientation in evaporites., Young, R.A., 2007, Spectral decomposition of 3D GPR data from an alluvial environment, The Leading Edge, 1024-1030.

Significance: Spectral decomposition of GPR data

reveals tuning in a sand wedge


Hoyos, J. fracture orientation in evaporites, Young, R.A., 2001, Near-surface, SH-wave surveys in unconsolidated, alluvial sediments, The Leading Edge, 936-948.



“Old” seismic equipment P-wave reflections

OU Field Camp (1992-2006)


Raw Data P-wave reflections

Mute, AGC

75ms window for AGC 75

-6 dB for pre- rasterization gain

Example Early Muting and AGC on Line 3

Before NMO

After NMO

Example NMO Correction on Line 3 – SH-SH data


L1 P-wave reflections

Line locations of shear-wave surveys

at the Abbey.

L3

Tie between Line 3 and Line 1

3D View of horizons picked in the seismic grid from the Abbey.

Top and bottom of the Pierre Shale are the two shallowest horizons.


“New” seismic field equipment P-wave reflections

2 24-Channel Geodes

48 channel (.52 m takeout spacing) cable

48 channel (4.0 m takeout spacing) cable

24 channel downhole hydrophone array

52 28-Hz vertical geophones

48 40-Hz vertical geophones

Through the Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS),

we could borrow NN additional channels of recording capability, IVI mini-vibrator

Significance: Potential to record vertical, radial, and transverse component data using “P”, “SV”, and “SH” sources and to jump from 2D to 3D


Future work P-wave reflections


  • P-wave reflections DMO and spectral decomposition enhancement of GPR CMP gathers

Nate Johnson, Senior thesis

CMP/CRP 167_2

CMP/CRP 103


  • P-wave reflections Seismic characterization of the

  • Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer

Breanne Kennedy, MS thesis (Devon support)

• 2D near-surface and exploration-scale seismic data from

Hunton anticline

• targets:

fractures, karst features, pC basement topography

  • •Rayleigh wave inversion for shear-wave

  • velocity structure (MASW)

Rika Burr, Senior thesis

  • •GPR/ERT characterization of the

  • Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer

Oswaldo Davogustto, MS thesis


Common Source Gathers P-wave reflections

Average Apparent Velocities

soil profile ~ 363 m/s

bedrock ~ 3046 m/s

direct arrival

refraction

reflection

Rayleigh waves


Carlos Russian, MS thesis P-wave reflections

  • •S/N enhancement on 3D seismic

  • cross-spread

  • F-K, K-L transform methods

  • •3D multicomponent study of seismic SV waves

  • record SV-waves on OU seismic system

  • SV impulsive source, radial component geophones

  • simple raypath geometry

  • strong event ??

  • compare to similar near-surface and exploration scale surveys


N/S shot gather P-wave reflections

Apparent Velocity ~ 4733 m/s


SV-wave and P-wave high resolution seismic reflection using vertical impacting and vibrating sources

Andre Pugin

Susan Pullen

James Hunter

Geological Survey of Canada


1.1 Sec vertical impacting and vibrating sources

2.2 Sec

3-Component Geophone

A Practical Approach to a 3D Multi-Component Seismic ProjectAlison Small (Parallel Petroleum Corp)J.W. (Tom) Thomas (Dawson Geophysical)Seth H. Conway (Dawson Geophysical)SEG 2007 presentation

P-Wave

S-Wave

Ri

Rx

P

Objectives:


Shot Station vertical impacting and vibrating sources

1173-1176

Shot Line 1146

Receiver Line 6213

Receiver Line 6145

Shot Station

1212

Shot Line 1076

Shot Line 1006

Shot Station

1169-1196

hybrid

swath

2x2

Test Sourcing And Numbering

All have Rx and Ri

V

V

V


350 ms vertical impacting and vibrating sources

700 ms

900 ms

Production “P” Migrated

750 ms

1400 ms

1800 ms

Production “Shear” Migrated


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