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Do you know what the reasons were for the American Revolution? Why was it successful?. Daily Opener. What are some differences between the French Revolution and the American Revolution?. WARM UP. The French Revolution and Napoleon. Chapter 18. The Constitution of the United States ratified

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1789 important year

The Constitution of the United States ratified

  • The beginning of the French revolution
  • Causes
    • Sharp class divide
    • Absolutist monarchy
    • Economic crisis
the three estates
The Three Estates
  • First Estate - Clergy
    • 130,000 people
    • Exempt from the taille
  • The Second Estate - The Nobility
    • 350,000 people
    • Powerful positions in church, government, military
    • Exempt from taille (tax)
  • The Third Estate – everyone else
    • Largest estate - Majority were peasants
    • Bourgeoisie – merchants, bankers, industrialists, lawyers, doctors
    • Skilled people – craftsmen, shopkeepers
    • Peasants, unskilled laborers
3 estates
3 Estates

In your classroom notebook under todays daily opener:

-1. write what message you think the artist who created this picture was trying to convey?

-2. Why do you think the artist may have felt this was an important issue?

-3. What do you think the image was intended to do?

-4. Why a picture? There were printing presses weren’t there?

beginning of revolution
Beginning of Revolution
  • The Estates-General called; disbanded by Louis XVI
  • Members create the National Assembly
    • Tennis Court Oath, June 1789
  • July 14, 1789 – The Storming of the Bastille
    • “The Great Fear”
the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen

August 26, 1789 – adopted by National Assembly

    • Ended exemption from taxes
    • Freedom of religion, press and equal rights for all male citizens (Suffrage)
    • Personal liberties are ensured only when they do not conflict with the laws of the nation
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
the monarchy s reaction
The Monarchy’s Reaction
  • Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
    • Very unpopular for debts/opulent lifestyle
    • Hiding in Versailles for most early revolution
    • Pushed back to Paris by angry Parisian women
  • Initially appears to be in support of Revolution
    • actually buying time to raise European Awareness to their troubles
europe s response
Europe’s Response
  • Absolute monarchies concerned with threat of internal revolution
    • Prussia and Austria threaten to invade, restore order
  • France declares war on Prussia and Austria in 1792 (enter Napoleon)
  • National Assembly fearful of “traitors” at home – creates The Paris Commune
    • Very radical ruling executive committee
    • Directed the ‘sans-culottes’
political upheaval
Political Upheaval
  • National Assembly split between two factions
    • The Girondins - conservative
    • The Mountains - liberal
      • The Jacobins – ultra radical faction
  • Maximillian Robespierre
    • Committee of Public Safety
    • Un-contested Jacobin control
    • Elimination of opposition
    • Orders trial and execution of Louis/Antionette,1793
    • Effectively dictator of France
the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror
  • Robespierre reigns unchecked
    • “The Republic of Virtue”
    • “Citizens”
  • Enemies of the state tried and executed by the Revolutionary Courts
    • Approximately 40,000 executed/16,000 by guillotine
  • Extreme De-Christianization
    • “The Cult of Man”
the end and the directory

Popular support for Jacobins dwindles

    • Too violent
    • Robespierre too powerful – too radical
  • National Assembly (Convention) Reforms
    • Arrests and executes Robespierre/reduces power of the Committee on Public Safety
    • Established new Constitution,1795
      • Council of 5, the Directory, Chosen to lead France as executives
      • Corrupt and relied on military power.
  • 1799 – coup d'état – Napoleon comes to power
The End and the Directory
daily opener q s sep 4 2013

Which of the following best illustrates John Locke’s Theory of natural rights, as reflected in the Declaration of Independence?

    • The government is the source of all rights
    • Power should be concentrated in the monarchy
    • Power to govern belongs to the people
    • Individual liberties (freedoms) are best protected by the monarchy
  • What did the American Colonists’ slogan, “No taxations without representation,” express?
    • A belief in free trade
    • A belief in economic interdependence
    • A belief in the supremacy of parliament
    • A belief in the consent of the governed.
Daily Opener Q’s Sep. 4, 2013
quick review chronological order of governments

Absolute Monarch-King Louis XVI

    • Estates General-1vote per estate
    • King refuses to change voting policy
  • National Assembly-Dec of Rights of Man
    • Tennis Court Oath 1789
  • The French Republic (Reign of Terror)
    • Maximillian Robespierre-Radical revolutionary
      • Guillotine
  • The Directory- military rule by 5 separate generals
    • Napoleon Seizes Italy and Egypt, parade in Paris
  • Consulate/Emperor Napoleon I
Quick Review:Chronological order of Governments
napoleon bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Born in Corsica, 1769
  • Distinguished military career
    • Youngest General in French army
  • Consulate for Life, 1802
  • Crowned Emperor in 1804
  • Known for being temperamental, egotistical
napoleon s france
Napoleon’ s France
  • PROS
    • Napoleonic Code
      • Single code of law, replaced 300 individual systems
    • Right to choose an occupation
    • Promotions on ability, not name or birth
    • Equality before law
    • Religious tolerance
    • Abolition of Serfdom/Feudalism
  • CONS
    • Absolutist state
    • Outlawed trade unions and strikes
    • Women were “less equal” than men
    • Censorship
expansion the grand empire
Expansion &The Grand Empire
  • The French Empire
    • Homeland France, Netherlands, Northern Italy
  • The Allied States
    • Denmark, Prussia, Austria
  • The Dependent States
    • Puppet states indirectly controlled by Napoleon
    • Spain, Rhineland, Italy
  • The Enemy States
    • Britain, Russia
napoleon s failed invasions


    • Napoleon wants war with England, excuse to invade
      • Continental System
        • England not permitted to trade with Napoleon’s holdings in Europe
    • British defeats French and Spanish ships, at Trafalgar, 1805
  • Russia
    • June 1812-600,000 French soldiers enter Russia
    • Retreating Russian troops/winter
    • “The Great Retreat” - over 560,000 lost
  • Napoleon’s credibility destroyed – empire collapses, repeated losses
Napoleon’s Failed Invasions
napoleon s final years
Napoleon’s Final Years
  • Napoleon is captured and exiled to Elba in 1814
    • Bourbon monarchy briefly restored in France – very unpopular
    • Escapes and takes over the army in March 1815.
  • Former allies, dependent states stand against him at Waterloo, June 18, 1815
    • Duke of Wellington leads victorious coalition of British, Belgian, and Austrian troops
    • Napoleon again exiled, this time to St. Helena, dies in solitude
work diligently be disciplined with time management

You have the rest of the class period today and half the class tomorrow to finish posters.

2nd half of class tomorrow is your review for your test, so you need to be focused now.

Remember I am watching for who is working for your individual grades.

Work Diligently, Be Disciplined with Time Management
timeline project

Create a timeline of the French Revolution

  • Include the major events discussed in our notes
  • Be sure to Bold
    • Each new form of government from the absolute ruler King Louis XVI-Napoleon
    • The style of government it employed
    • Background information
      • Ex. King Louis XVI beheading took place during the “Reign of Terror”
Timeline Project