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  1. Housekeeping Emergency Evacuation Course timings and breaks Assembly point Exits Facilities • Language, literacy and numeracy • Incident/injury notification • Prerequisites • Appeals process • Enrolment form Phones

  2. Course Content HLTFA404A Apply advanced resuscitation techniques PUAEME003C Administer oxygen in an emergency situation PUAEME010C Operate an Automated External Defibrillator in an emergency situation. Course Duration: 9.5 hours The First Aid Training Manual or Public Safety and Aquatic Rescue manual may also be used as a reference 3

  3. Learner Guide icons Remember this Case study Assessment activity Reading material Individual activity Group activity Course objectives

  4. Course outcomes • assess the casualty and develop a management plan • check and use resuscitation equipment • maintain an airway by: • using suction • using OP airways • resuscitate a casualty using oxygen resuscitation equipment • use oxygen to provide therapy • recover and restore oxygen equipment • check defibrillation equipment • attach and operate a defibrillator • recover and restore defibrillation equipment By the end of the course you should be able to:

  5. Assessment Assessment purpose: • to demonstrate your competence after the learning • to meet organisational requirements for your role Assessment process: • written assessment • practical assessment including scenarios • RPL

  6. Topic 1 – First Aid and Resuscitation Review Learning outcomes On completion of this topic candidates will be familiar with: • the legal implications associated with first aid • infection controls for communicable diseases • the chain of survival • Emergency Action Plan (EAP) • review of CPR 7

  7. Legal implications of first aid • Duty of care • Documentation • Confidentiality 8

  8. Duty of care No requirement to provide assistance unless you already owe a duty of care to the sick or injured person. Examples include: • a first aider at a worksite • someone caring for children • taking on a duty of care once you begin giving first aid Once you begin giving first aid, you have a duty to do everything reasonable and you cannot abandon the casualty 9

  9. Recording Make a record at the time of the incident to: • assist with management and handover • create a legal record The following information may be required: • date and time • what happened • what assistance you provided.

  10. Confidentiality • Information about a casualty should not be shared with others not involved in their treatment (ie it is acceptable to share information with parents, other first aiders assisting with treatment or ambulance personnel) 11

  11. First aid safety • Wash hands after treating a casualty • Use appropriate PPE (gloves, resuscitation masks, protective eyewear) • Place sharps in sharps containers • Dispose of contaminated wastes into appropriate labelled containers • Be aware of the signs in yourself or colleagues and seek support 12

  12. Airway obstructions 13

  13. Chain of survival

  14. Activity 15

  15. Emergency action plan (EAP) • Pause and plan • Call for emergency assistance • Primary assessment • Secondary assessment • management of injuries • vital signs • history • body check • treatment • Ongoing management

  16. Pause and plan This reminds the first aider to remain calm, stop and think. When pausing and planning consider? safety equipment length of time you may be out in the elements communications further assistance Is 000 required 17

  17. Call for emergency assistance Four Ps Position Problem People Progress 18

  18. Primary assessment Danger Response Send for help Airway Breathing Compression Defibrillation 19

  19. Primary assessment - CPR Jaw thrust is essential when performing airbag resuscitation Leadership during CPR You will be looked to for leadership by other first aiders You may need to instruct a bystander in CPR 20

  20. Secondary assessment Management of injuries Vital signs History Body check Treatment 21

  21. Ongoing management Reassess the casualty’s vital signs at regular intervals Continue to identify actual or potential problems and plan appropriate care Notify the ambulance service of any change to the casualty’s status as appropriate Hand over casualty to ambulance personnel Who should be sent to hospital? How long will an ambulance take to respond to your area? 22

  22. Assessment 23

  23. Topic 2 – Advanced Resuscitation and Oxygen Administration Learning outcomes • Oxygen equipment components • Oxygen equipment safety precautions • Equipment checks • Oropharyngeal (OP) airways 24

  24. Why use oxygen? Oxygen is useful in most situations where the casualty does not appear adequately perfused (oxygenated) • Increases oxygen uptake • Promotes recovery in most first aid situations • Minimises risk of cross-infection 25

  25. Why use oxygen? Unconciousness Chest pain After resuscitation Shock Circulatory distress Anaphylaxis Injuries Asthma Blood loss Shortness of breath Severe pain Not breathing

  26. The respiratory system

  27. The breathing process

  28. Respiratory noises • Cough • Wheeze • Stridor • Gurgling • No sound 29

  29. Respiratory conditions • Hypoventilation • Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) • Asthma • Hyperventilation 30

  30. Oxygen resuscitation equipment 31

  31. Oxygen equipment components 32

  32. Activity 33

  33. Oxygen equipment 34

  34. Safety precautions Oxygen must be used with care and respect at all times • Never use oxygen near an open flame • Never use oxygen near cigarettes • Never use grease or oil with oxygen equipment • Never use oxygen when delivering a shock via a defibrillator

  35. Oxygen cylinders C size Pin indexed. 440-490L capacity. White/blue sleeve over outlet of full bottle. White cylinder labeled Medical Oxygen (changed from black with white shoulder to all white between September 2009 and June 2011) • Operational times: 50 Min, Therapy (8L per min). • 30 Min, Resus (14-15L per min). • Replace cylinders when less than half full (can be used for training). 36

  36. Preparing cylinders for use Check heat warning tag. Remove protective plastic wrap. Open or ‘crack’ valve safely. Ensure yoke is clean and dry, sealing washer in place. Attach the yoke – do not over tighten. Slowly open valve fully, then back half a turn. Check contents (Under half full replace), Ensure system is free of leaks. When finished using, turn valve off, then release pressure from regulator. Mark cylinder with contents and date checked Protective plastic wrap Heat warning tag 37

  37. Oxygen equipment • Check tubing • Check flow • Check that there is no odour • Close cylinder valve and drain unit of oxygen 38

  38. Ancillary equipment • Therapy masks (adult and child) • Resuscitation masks (adult and child) • OP airways • Chalk • Pencil, sharpener and paper • Gloves • Spare sealing washers 39

  39. Activity 40

  40. Administering oxygen therapy • Check oxygen equipment • Place equipment so the operator can reach and see the contents gauge • Attach tubing to mask and turn on • Secure mask to casualty’s face NOTE: If the casualty does not want to use the mask, remove the mask and direct oxygen flow around the mouth and nose

  41. Jaw Thrust Opening the airway Maximum Head Tilt (Except Infants) Use Pistol Grip Jaw Support 42

  42. Mouth-to-mask with oxygen Used when rescuer is not ARC/ARTC qualified or airbag is not working correctly 43

  43. Air bag resuscitator Extension tube (optional) Oxygen Inlet valve Self refilling Recoil bag Resus mask Reservoir bag Patient valve 44

  44. Pre Use Airbag Checks(Assembled components) 3 1 Fill reservoir bag, connect to inlet valve Squeeze Squeeze recoil bag lifts yellow membrane Seal patient valve Check the airbag for leaks Check reservoir valve “blow off” 2 4 Fill reservoir bag, connect to inlet valve Fill reservoir bag, place over patient valve Squeeze Squeeze lifts yellow membrane Reservoir bag deflates Check patient valve for non-breathing Check intake valve 45

  45. Airbag operation • Gentle squeezing motion 1.5-2 seconds • Adult: 2 hands • Child:1 hand • Squeeze airbag before use to fill with oxygen • Watch rise and fall of casualty’s chest • If unhappy with equipment, discard • Airbag may still be used when cylinder is empty 46

  46. Activity 47

  47. Assessment 48

  48. Oropharyngeal (OP) airways Flange • curved plastic device • assists in the maintenance of an adequate airway in the unconscious casualty • keeps the airway clear and the tongue in place Bite block 49

  49. OP airways • An airway blocked by the tongue • Using an OP airway to assist with a clear airway 50