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ADVANCED Project Management - Project Management Overview & Challenges. MITM743 - Lecture 1 Dr. Hidayah Sulaiman. Welcome to MITM743. Information Systems Project Management Lecturer: Dr. Hidayah Sulaiman Email: Location: BW-2-C42/BA-2-65

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advanced project management project management overview challenges

ADVANCED Project Management - Project Management Overview & Challenges

MITM743- Lecture 1

Dr. Hidayah Sulaiman

welcome to mitm743
Welcome to MITM743
  • Information Systems Project Management
  • Lecturer: Dr. Hidayah Sulaiman
  • Email:
  • Location: BW-2-C42/BA-2-65
  • Phone: 03 89212020 ext 3242
my expectations of you
My Expectations of You
  • Perform reading assignments before coming to class
  • Do most work in teams
  • Academic honesty enforced
project topic
Project Topic
  • About What?
    • UNITEN Research Management Center’s Website Redesigning project
      • You are a project manager for this project
      • Follow steps given in the handout
      • Produce a report and prototype of a working website
how to submit and when
How to Submit and When?
  • Performed individually
  • Will require a project completion presentation in the final week.
  • Submit report and prototype
what is a project
What is a project?
  • A specific objective must be completed within certain specifications
  • Has a definite starting date and end date
  • Has funding limitations
  • Consumes resources (money, people, equipment)
  • Made up of activities (tasks)
  • Accomplished in teams – Teamwork makes the Dream Works
so what is a project exactly
So, What Is a Project, exactly?
  • A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique purpose
    • As defined by the Project Management Institute
  • Attributes of projects
    • Unique purpose
    • Temporary
    • Require resources, often from various areas
    • Should have a primary sponsor and/or customer
    • Involves risk and uncertainty
    • Has stakeholders
the project lifecycle
The Project LifeCycle











how do it projects differ from ordinary projects
How do IT Projects differ from ordinary projects?
  • Ordinary projects might be projects in construction, aerospace, defense, space, government, etc.
  • Each IT Project is unique and thus involves more risk
  • The technology is continually changing
  • There is less visibility
how do it projects differ from ordinary projects continued
How do IT Projects differ from ordinary projects, continued?
  • There is a tendency to spend too much time on concept definition and analysis in IT projects
  • There tends to be less organizational maturity in IT projects
  • Maturity is a big issue here
    • Who is Watts Humphrey?
how are it projects similar to ordinary projects
How are IT Projects similar to ordinary projects?
  • They have all the common basic attributes of projects—starting point, stopping point, duration, finite, temporary, creating a deliverable or product, utilizing resources, accomplished in teams, consisting of steps (tasks), accruing cost, etc.
  • All projects involve risk, accrue expenditures, involve procurement, human resources, etc.
project management involves
Project management involves
  • Conceiving and Defining
    • Definition of work requirements--WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE--WBS
  • Planning and Budgeting
    • Determination of quantity and quality of work
    • Determination of what resources are needed when
  • Executing and Controlling
    • Actual execution of the project tasks take place here
    • Tracking progress
    • Comparing actual to predicted outcomes
    • Analyzing impact/Making adjustments
  • Closing and Terminating
    • What went right?
    • What went wrong?
    • What can be learned??
successful project management requires completion of the project
Successful Project management requires completion of the project
  • on time
  • within budget
  • with the desired performance/technology level
  • with good customer satisfaction/relations
  • while using the assigned resources effectively
  • What is the probability of pulling this off for IT projects????
further elements of success include
Further elements of success include
  • with acceptance by the customer/user
  • without disturbing the main work flow of the organization
  • without changing the corporate culture
    • {unless that is the objective of the project}
why do bad things happen to good projects
Why do bad things happen to good projects???
  • Poorly defined requirements
    • Poorly conceived project deliverable
    • No shared vision of what the project is to accomplish
  • Poor planning
    • No schedule
    • No budget
    • No concern for quality/risk/procurement
  • Resources don’t materialize when they are needed
  • Subcontractors don’t deliver on time
  • Requirements change
  • Technology changes
when is project management necessary
When is project management necessary?
  • when jobs are complex
  • when there are dynamic environmental considerations
  • when constraints on time and budget are tight
  • when there are several activities to be integrated
  • when there are functional boundaries to be crossed
project management encompasses many disciplines
Project management encompasses many disciplines
  • Operations management
  • Operations research
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Organization theory
  • Organizational behavior
  • Systems thinking and management
motivation for studying information technology it project management
Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management
  • IT Projects have a poor track record
  • “Project manager” is the #1 position IT managers say they need most for contract help
    • Often, this leads to distributed PM
  • Projects create ¼ of the US and world GDP
the triple constraint
The Triple Constraint
  • Every project is constrained in different ways by its
    • Scope goals
    • Time goals
    • Cost goals
  • It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals
pmi s definition of project management
PMI’s Definition of Project Management?

Project management is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The temporary nature of projects indicates a definite beginning and end.”

(PMI*, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 2008, pg. 5)

*The Project Management Institute (PMI) is an international professional society. Their web site is

project stakeholders
Project Stakeholders
  • Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities
  • Stakeholders include
    • the project sponsor and project team
      • The project sponsor is the person who funds the project
    • support staff
    • customers
    • users
    • upper management
    • line management
    • suppliers
    • opponents to the project
nine project management knowledge areas
Nine Project Management Knowledge Areas
  • Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop
    • Four core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality)
    • Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management
    • One knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas
project management tools and techniques
Project Management Tools and Techniques
  • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management
  • Some specific ones include
    • Project Charter and WBS (scope)
    • Gantt charts, PERT charts, critical path analysis (time)
    • Cost estimates and Earned Value Analysis (cost)
advantages of project management
Advantages of Project Management
  • Bosses, customers, and other stakeholders do not like surprises
  • Good project management (PM) provides assurance and reduces risk
  • PM provides the tools and environment to plan, monitor, track, and manage schedules, resources, costs, and quality
  • PM provides a history or metrics base for future planning as well as good documentation
  • Project members learn and grow by working in a cross-functional team environment

Source: Knutson, Joan, PM Network, December 1997, p. 13

how project management pm relates to other disciplines
How Project Management (PM) Relates to Other Disciplines
  • Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to PM
  • However, project managers must also have knowledge and experience in
    • general management
    • the application area of the project
  • Project managers must focus on meeting specific project objectives
history of project management
History of Project Management
  • Modern project management began with the Manhattan Project, which the U.S. military led to develop the atomic bomb
  • In 1917 Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in job shops
  • In 1958, the Navy developed PERT charts
  • In the 1970s, the military began using project management software, as did the construction industry
  • By the 1990s, virtually every industry was using some form of project management
project management certification
Project Management Certification
  • PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP)
  • A PMP has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam
  • The number of people earning PMP certification is increasing quickly
code of ethics
Code of Ethics
  • PMI developed a project management code of ethics that all PMPs must agree to abide by
  • Conducting work in an ethical manner helps the profession earn confidence
  • Ethics are on the web at
  • CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management)
    • Requires passing an exam prepared by PMI only.
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • Give three examples of activities that are projects and three examples of activities that are not projects
  • How is project management different from general management?
  • Why do you think so many information technology projects are unsuccessful?
projects cannot be run in isolation
Projects Cannot Be Runin Isolation
  • Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment
  • Project managers need to take a holistic or systems view of a project and understand how it is situated within the larger organization

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

a systems view of project management
A Systems View of Project Management
  • A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving
  • Three parts include:
    • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
    • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
    • Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

figure 2 1 three sphere model for systems management
Figure 2-1. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

understanding organizations
Understanding Organizations

Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organizational charts help define this frame.

Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people.

Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues.

Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important.

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

many organizations focus on the structural frame
Many Organizations Focus on the Structural Frame
  • Most people understand what organizational charts are
  • Many new managers try to change organizational structure when other changes are needed
  • 3 basic organizational structures
    • functional
    • project
    • matrix

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

basic organizational structures
Basic Organizational Structures

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

recognize the importance of project stakeholders
Recognize the Importance of Project Stakeholders
  • Recall that project stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities
  • Project managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders
  • Using the four frames of organizations can help meet stakeholder needs and expectations
  • Senior executives are very important stakeholders

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

what helps projects succeed
What Helps Projects Succeed?

According to the Standish Group’s report “CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success,” the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance:

  • Executive support
  • User involvement
  • Experienced project manager
  • Clear business objectives
  • Minimized scope
  • Standard software infrastructure
  • Firm basic requirements
  • Formal methodology
  • Reliable estimates

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

need for top management commitment
Need for Top Management Commitment
  • Several studies cite top management commitment as one of the key factors associated with project success
  • Top management can help project managers secure adequate resources, get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner, receive cooperation from people throughout the organization, and learn how to be better leaders

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

need for organizational commitment to information systems technology is it
Need for Organizational Commitment to Information Systems/Technology (IS/IT)
  • If the organization has a negative attitude toward IS/IT, it will be difficult for an IS/IT project to succeed
  • Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IS/IT projects
  • Assigning non-IT people to IS/IT projects also encourages more commitment

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

need for organizational standards
Need for Organizational Standards
  • Standards and guidelines help project managers be more effective
  • Senior management can encourage
    • the use of standard forms and software for project management
    • the development and use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information
    • the creation of a project management office or center of excellence

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

the context of it projects
The Context of IT Projects
  • IT projects can be very diverse in terms of size, complexity, products produced, application area, and resource requirements
  • IT project team members often have diverse backgrounds and skill sets
  • IT projects use diverse technologies that change rapidly. Even within one technology area, people must be highly specialized

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

fifteen project management job functions
Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*
  • Define scope of project
  • Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures
  • Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures)
  • Estimate time requirements
  • Develop initial project management flow chart
  • Identify required resources and budget
  • Evaluate project requirements
  • Identify and evaluate risks
  • Prepare contingency plan
  • Identify interdependencies
  • Identify and track critical milestones
  • Participate in project phase review
  • Secure needed resources
  • Manage the change control process
  • Report project status

*Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology,"Belleview, WA, 1999

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

suggested skills for project managers
Suggested Skills for Project Managers
  • Project managers need a wide variety of skills
  • They should be comfortable with change, understand the organizations they work in and with, and be able to lead teams to accomplish project goals
  • Project managers need both “hard” and “soft” skills. Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use various project management tools and techniques, and soft skills include being able to work with various types of people

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

suggested skills for a project manager
Suggested Skills for aProject Manager
  • Communication skills: listening, persuading
  • Organizational skills: planning, goal-setting, analyzing
  • Team Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de corps
  • Leadership skills: set examples, be energetic, have vision (big picture), delegate, be positive
  • Coping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistence
  • Technological skills: experience, project knowledge

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

table 2 4 most significant characteristics of effective and ineffective project managers
Table 2-4. Most Significant Characteristics of Effective and Ineffective Project Managers

Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers

  • Lead by example
  • Are visionaries
  • Are technically competent
  • Are decisive
  • Are good communicators
  • Are good motivators
  • Stand up to upper management when necessary
  • Support team members
  • Encourage new ideas
  • Set bad examples
  • Are not self-assured
  • Lack technical expertise
  • Are poor communicators
  • Are poor motivators

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 2

paper assignment discussion
  • What went wrong? Unsuccessful information technology projects
  • What practitioners consider to be the skills and behaviors of an effective people project manager
project management process groups1
Project Management Process Groups
  • Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes
  • The project management process groups include
    • initiating processes
    • planning processes
    • executing processes
    • controlling processes
    • closing processes

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

figure 3 1 overlap of process groups in a phase pmbok guide 2000 p 31
Figure 3-1. Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK® Guide, 2000, p. 31)

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

developing an it project management methodology
Developing an IT Project Management Methodology
  • Just as projects are unique, so are approaches to project management
  • Many organizations develop their own project management methodologies, especially for IT projects
  • Many organizations use the PMBOK as a guide in developing their IT project management methodology

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

project initiation
Project Initiation
  • Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a new project or project phase
  • Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase, while others include items like developing a business case as part of initiation
  • The main goal is to formally select and start off projects
  • Key outputs include:
    • Assigning the project manager
    • Identifying key stakeholders
    • Completing a business case
    • Completing a project charter and getting signatures on it

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

jwd s project charter
JWD’s Project Charter

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

jwd s project charter1
JWD’s Project Charter

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

project planning
Project Planning
  • The main purpose of project planning is to guide execution
  • Every knowledge area includes planning information
  • Key outputs include:
    • A team contract
    • A scope statement
    • A work breakdown structure (WBS)
    • A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all dependencies and resources entered
    • A list of prioritized risks

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

project executing
Project Executing
  • It usually takes the most time and resources to perform project execution since the products of the project are produced here
  • The most important output of execution is work results
  • Project managers must use their leadership skills to handle the many challenges that occur during project execution

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

project controlling
Project Controlling
  • Controlling involves measuring progress toward project objectives, monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking corrective actions
  • Controlling affects all other process groups and occurs during all phases of the project life cycle
  • Status and progress reports are important outputs of controlling

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

project closing
Project Closing
  • The closing process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final product and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end
  • Even if projects are not completed, they should be closed out to learn from the past
  • Project archives and lessons learned are important outputs. Most projects include a final report and presentations

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3

post project follow up
Post-Project Follow-up
  • Many organizations have realized that it’s important to review the results of projects a year or so after they have been completed
  • Many projects project potential savings, so it’s important to review the financial estimates and help learn from the past in preparing new estimates

IT Project Management, Third Edition Chapter 3