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Today – 1/25

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  1. Today – 1/25 • Critter in the news • History of dinosaur discoveries • In-class writing

  2. Go to the video!

  3. Administration: • Honors

  4. http://ciclops.org

  5. Clear / unclear T-chart • Biostratigraphy • Carbon isotope stratigraphy • Magnetostratigraphy

  6. An oxygen atom is an oxygen atom because a) it has 8 electrons b) it has 8 protons c) it has 8 neutrons d) all of the above

  7. In the ID article, Miller is against bringing ID into science classrooms because a) he thinks it is impossible to believe in God and evolution at the same time b) the “theory of gravity” isn’t being tested in court c) it is untestable d) all of the above

  8. Megalosaurus was so hard to understand (i.e. make a realistic reconstruction of appearance and behavior) because a) the original fossil material was so fragmentary b) there was no pre-existing database of well- understood dinosaur material to compare it to c) preconceptions both spiritual and scientific made it hard to think about something so radically different from anything alive today d) all of the above

  9. In chapter 3 of Gorgon, Roger Smith a) overturns the conventional thinking that the P-T boundary was not preserved in the sedimentary rocks of the Karoo b) correctly identifies the P-T boundary as the last appearance of Dicynodon, not the first appearance of Lystrosaurus c) realizes that sediments below the boundary layer were deposited by a large meandering river, sediments above the boundary layer by braided streams d) all of the above

  10. Last time: • Magnetostratigraphy • Reconstructing dinos from fossils • Protoceratops, Megalosaurus, Iguanodon • Buckland, Mantell, Owen • Steno, Hutton, Lyell, Darwin

  11. William Smith 1815

  12. Archaeopteryx – London specimen, found 1861

  13. Taphonomy - the study of how fossils get preserved • How sedimentary rock deposits are formed and how dead animals get in them • Help us understand ancient ecosystems • Helps us understand biases in the fossil record • Some organisms and parts of organisms rarely preserved • How we make sense of a fossil find – what it does and doesn’t tell us

  14. www.fossilhut.com Berlin specimen - 1877 www.sonoma.edu/users/g/geist/bio.html Solenhofen specimen - 60’s

  15. www.cmnh.org

  16. www.hayashibara.co.jp/html/shinka/ paleo.cc/paluxy/livptero.htm Pterodactyluskochi leute.server.de/frankmuster/P/Pterodactylus.htm

  17. www.breckminerals.com www.johnsibbick.com/prehist-pages/pre-p-20.asp Ichthyosaur from Holzmaden www.urweltmuseum.de/Englisch/shop_eng/fossilienverkauf_eng.htm

  18. Brief history of bird origins debate • Archae has teeth, hand claws, and a bony tail like dinos; but feathers like birds • 1926 Heilmann decides birds did not descend from dinos because dinos lack wishbones (since found) • 1964 Deinonychus discovered • 1972 Walker suggests birds descended from an ancestral crocodilian

  19. Deinonychus www.dinosoria.com

  20. Ichnology: study of trace fossils Connecticut Valley dinosaur tracks described by Edward Hitchcock 1836 - 1858 www.amherst.edu/~pratt

  21. 1856 - Joseph Leidy publishes first description of North American dinosaur fossils

  22. Hadrosaur “duckbill”

  23. Cope’s Law • Species in a lineage tend to get larger over time. Certainly not always true, but we will see some spectacular examples of it in this class.

  24.  Stegosaurus ungulatus Stegosaurus stenops www.dinosaursinart.com

  25. Allosaurus fragilis www.dinosaursinart.com

  26. 1878 - Iguanodon mass grave found in Belgium

  27. Dollo’s Law • Law of Irreversible Evolution – species can evolve particular specializations, but can never re-evolve their original condition. First step towards the science of cladistics. Not completely true. For us, when a lineage loses a bone, it does not re-evolve it.

  28. http://digitalidesigns.net/ Brontosaurus, now called Apatosaurus

  29. Ornithischia - “bird-hipped” Saurischia - “lizard-hipped”

  30. 1889 - 1892 Hatcher finds 32 ceratopsians

  31. World’s first quarry map

  32. Torosaurus Pentaceratops www.amnh.org www.peabody.yale.edu www.geo.uw.edu.pl