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Energy efficiency and research computing RUGIT Away Day, 24th Jan 2008. Dave Berry Deputy Director, NeSC & Technology Lead, Grid Computing Now! daveb@nesc.ac.uk. Contents. Background and goals Desktop Grids for High Throughput Computing Data centres and HPC centres Ways forward.

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energy efficiency and research computing rugit away day 24th jan 2008

Energy efficiency and research computingRUGIT Away Day, 24th Jan 2008

Dave Berry

Deputy Director, NeSC &

Technology Lead, Grid Computing Now!

daveb@nesc.ac.uk

www.gridcomputingnow.org

contents
Contents
  • Background and goals
  • Desktop Grids for High Throughput Computing
  • Data centres and HPC centres
  • Ways forward

www.gridcomputingnow.org

gcn aims
GCN! Aims
  • Accelerate the benefits to the UK economy of adopting modern computing technologies, i.e.:
  • The creation of scalable, secure, efficient ICT infrastructures,
  • For delivering IT services, linked to business processes through a service oriented architecture,
  • While achieving greater utilisation with reduced energy consumption and reduced costs

www.gridcomputingnow.org

knowledge transfer network
Knowledge Transfer Network
  • Part of the Technology Strategy Board’s Innovation Programme
    • Run by Intellect, NeSC and CNR
  • Activities
    • Web platform; user case studies; events; webinars; active sector and regional programme
  • Communities of Practice
    • Green IT (including MBE KTN, BCS, …)
    • Transport Modelling, Grids in Health, Public sector IT, …

www.gridcomputingnow.org

aims for this session
Aims for this session
  • To expand our community of practice
    • Stimulate discussion
    • Share knowledge
    • Form relationships
  • Suggest a “best practices” document
    • Input to policy (Unis, RCs, government)
  • Want to learn as much as inform

www.gridcomputingnow.org

desktop grids
Desktop Grids
  • High Throughput Computing
    • Many experimental scientists are more interested in number of jobs/month rather than instantaneous computing power
  • One approach: use “Spare” Cycles
    • No need for air conditioning, etc.
    • But don’t we want to switch off machines at night?
  • Claim: desktop grids can give computing power for less cost and less electricity

www.gridcomputingnow.org

slide7

Cardiff slides from James Osborne,

High-Throughput Computing Week

NeSC, 27-30 November 2008

Central Manager

master, collector, negotiator

Execute Nodes

1600 Workstations

Submit Nodes

30 Workstations

master, schedd, shadow

master, startd, starter

economic viability

Based on a P4 3GHz PC with 512MB RAM

Economic Viability
  • Makes sound financial sense
  • Hibernate saves £60 per year
  • Condor = £30 per year (max)
  • Dedicated = £150 per year
  • Condor is 5 times cheaper

Saving of Hibernate = Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State) for 16 Hours out of 24

Cost of Condor = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) – Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State)

Cost of Dedicated = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) + Cost of 100W Electricity (Air Con)

environmental impact

Based on a P4 3GHz PC with 512MB RAM

Environmental Impact
  • Makes sound environmental sense
  • Hibernate saves 650Kg CO2 per year
  • Condor = 325Kg CO2 per year (max)
  • Dedicated = 1,625Kg CO2 per year
  • Condor is 5 times greener

Saving of Hibernate = Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State) for 16 Hours out of 24

Cost of Condor = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) – Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State)

Cost of Dedicated = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) + Cost of 100W Electricity (Air Con)

across campus

Based on 10,000 P4 3GHz PCs with 512MB RAM

Across Campus
  • Makes sound financial sense
    • Hibernate would save £600,000 per year
      • Hibernate 16 out of 24 hours
  • Makes sound environmental sense
    • Hibernate would save 6,500T CO2 per year
    • Rainforest required = 52Km2
    • Rainforest required = 40% area of Cardiff

Saving of Hibernate = Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State) for 16 Hours out of 24

Cost of Condor = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) – Cost of 100W Electricity (Idle State)

Cost of Dedicated = Cost of 150W Electricity (Condor State) + Cost of 100W Electricity (Air Con)

the best of both worlds
The best of both worlds?
  • What if we could power-off idle machines and wake them up when Condor has jobs to run?
  • JISC Low Carbon ICT project
    • http://projects.oucs.ox.ac.uk/lowcarbonict/
    • Develop an institution-wide wake-on-LAN service
    • Monitor energy consumption across the University
    • Write and implement a communications strategy
  • Towards Low Carbon ICT conference
    • Oxford, 19th March 2008

www.gridcomputingnow.org

data centres and hpc centres
Data Centres and HPC Centres

Need: 2xProcessing Capacity per annum; Target: 60% Energy Reduction from 1990 levels by 2050

www.gridcomputingnow.org

the scale of the problem
The scale of the problem
  • Power consumption by data centres:
    • Estimated 1.5% of UK national electricity generation
    • Peak consumption of 8GW
    • Estimated to rise from 46 TWH in 2006 to 93 TWH in 2020
    • Comparable with consumption by refrigeration…
    • … or greenhouse gases emitted by aviation

www.gridcomputingnow.org

policies and measurement
Policies and measurement
  • BCS DCSG model
    • Open source model of energy-efficiency for data centres and servers
  • The Green Grid
    • Vendor consortium
  • EU code of conduct on data centres
    • Development of baseline measures
    • Voluntary contribution of data from subscribing organisations

www.gridcomputingnow.org

press examples
Press Examples
  • Ultraspeed DC-based system in East London
    • Claims 30% power saving from use of DC
    • Extra 10% saving from diskless servers
    • http://pcworld.about.com/od/recyclin1/Data-center-claims-power-cuts.htm
  • Plan for green data farm in Lockerbie
    • Using renewable energy sources
    • Waste heat used to heat new “eco village”
    • http://www.redwasp.co.uk/newsitem.asp?id=280

www.gridcomputingnow.org

gcn webinar
GCN! Webinar
  • The Business Case and Methods for the Green Data Centre
    • Recording available on the web
  • Zahl Limbuwala
    • Chair, BCS Data Centre Specialist Group
    • Motivation and an introduction to the BCS model
  • Kate Craig Wood
    • Managing Director, Memset Ltd.
    • Practical steps to running a “carbon-neutral” data centre

www.gridcomputingnow.org

finance and administration
Finance and administration
  • Who sees the power bills?
  • Who calculates the total cost of ownership?
    • Does this affect purchasing decisions?
  • Trade-off: cost of reliability vs. cost of downtime
    • Don’t overspecify
  • Staff requirements
    • Specialised HPC kit may need specialised staff
    • Other kit may not

www.gridcomputingnow.org

power engineering
Power engineering
  • Location
    • Near power stations
    • Or local generation (CHP?)
  • AC or DC?
  • Provisioning levels
    • Nameplate provisioning is inefficient
  • Cables
    • Oversize for lower resistance (can halve losses)
    • Route through cool underfloor area

www.gridcomputingnow.org

example benchmarks
Example benchmarks

Slide from Kate Craig-Wood

graded ups usage
Graded UPS usage
  • Latest switch-mode based generation vastly more efficient
    • 96-96% vs. ~90%
  • Most efficient when fully loaded (98%)‏
  • Don't run at half-capacity
  • 40KVA steps, rather than typical 500KVA steps

Slide from Kate Craig-Wood

cooling
Cooling
  • What target temperature?
  • Water or air?
    • Store heated water externally?
  • External air or recycled air?
    • Savings from fresh air cooling of 72% (Source: BCS)
  • Modular cooling
    • Cabinets or rooms?
    • Modelling and controlling heat flow
  • Waste heat
    • How to sell or reuse?

www.gridcomputingnow.org

fresh air cooling
Fresh Air Cooling

www.gridcomputingnow.org

state of the art
State of the art?
  • “By careful design, matching the specification of the plant to the needs of the machine(s) we have brought the summer time cooling overhead down from 60 - 65% (very typical of most computer rooms) to 25 - 30%.
  • Further, by using freecool this drops to 7% in the winter.”

www.gridcomputingnow.org

system utilisation
System utilisation
  • Server virtualisation
  • Load balancing
    • Note – this is typically done already for compute clusters
    • May still apply to other university systems
  • Choice of equipment
    • Multi-core, power management, etc.
    • Diskless servers

www.gridcomputingnow.org

ways forward
Ways forward
  • Best practice document(s)
    • Perhaps proven + experimental?
  • Shared facilities
    • Shared data centres?
    • Shared compute clusters (a la NGS)?
  • Training for IT staff?
  • Case studies?
  • Input to policy (Unis, RCs, government)

www.gridcomputingnow.org

slide28
Benchmarks and Labelling

Slide from BCS DCSG

more references
More references
  • GCN! Webinar
    • http://tinyurl.com/2gtslj
  • BCS Data Centre Specialist Group
    • http://tinyurl.com/2dyy5t
  • EU Code of Conduct
    • http://tinyurl.com/2drxoh
  • HTC week
    • http://www.nesc.ac.uk/action/esi/contribution.cfm?Title=831
  • Technology Strategy Board
    • http://www.berr.gov.uk/innovation/technologystrategyboard

www.gridcomputingnow.org