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Renewable Energy Chapters15 Living in the Environment , 12 th Edition, Miller PowerPoint Presentation
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Renewable Energy Chapters15 Living in the Environment , 12 th Edition, Miller

Renewable Energy Chapters15 Living in the Environment , 12 th Edition, Miller

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Renewable Energy Chapters15 Living in the Environment , 12 th Edition, Miller

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  1. Renewable EnergyChapters15Living in the Environment, 12th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science

  2. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  3. Energy Efficiency • Increasing energy efficiency of common devices has economic and environmental advantages • Reducing oil imports • Prolonging fossil fuel supplies • Reducing pollution and environmental degradation • Saving money • Buys time to develop new technology • Creating jobs

  4. Efficiency of Some Common Devices Device Efficiency (%) • Dry-cell flashlight battery 90 • Home gas furnace 85 • Storage battery 70 • Home oil furnace 65 • Small electric motor 62 • Steam power plant 38 • Diesel engine 38 • High-intensity lamp 32 • Automobile engine 25 • Fluorescent lamp 22 • Incandescent lamp 4

  5. Energy Efficiency percentage of energy input that does useful work in an energy conversion system www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  6. Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency • Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the United States leveled off or declined • Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction of car sales • Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are expected to increase • Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available within a few years • Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range transportation alternatives

  7. Energy use of various types of transportation www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  8. Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency • Superinsulated house is more expensive than a conventional house, but energy savings pay back the extra cost • Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of using an annually renewable agricultural residue, thus slowing deforestation

  9. Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency • Existing homes can be made more energy efficient • adding insulation • plugging leaks • installing energy-saving windows • wrapping water heaters • installing tankless models • buying energy-efficient appliances and lights

  10. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability

  11. Solar Energy • Buildings can be heated • passive solar heating system • active solar heating system • Solar thermal systems are new technologies that collect and transform solar energy into heat that can be used directly or converted to electricity • Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly into electricity

  12. Suitability of Solar Usage best when more than 60% of daylight hours sunny www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  13. Solar Heating Passive system: Absorbs & stores heat from the sun directly within a structure Active system: Collectors absorb solar energy, a pump supplies part of abuildings heating or water heating needs. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  14. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  15. Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) • An open circuit hot water system heats the domestic water directly on the roof of the building • The water flows from the heat collector into the hot water tank to be used in the house • Integration of solar energy conservation in homes can reduce energy consumption by 75-90%. • www.iea-shc.org www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

  16. Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells Provides electricity for buildings www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  17. Inside the PV cell • PV cells are made from silicon alloys • PV module • 1cm by 10cm cells • 36 cells connected www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

  18. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  19. Solar Thermal Techniques SolarTwo www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

  20. Heliostats • Heliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the power tower • The reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its daily trajectory www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

  21. Power Tower • Sunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed receiver in power tower • Fluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the power block • Used to heat a steam generator Solar One www.earlham.edu/~parkero/Seminar/ SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

  22. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  23. Solar-Hydrogen Revolution • Splitting water can produce H2 gas • If scientists and engineers can learn how to use forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply, they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen revolution • Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles and appliances

  24. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  25. History of Hydroelectric • B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago • 1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with establishment of Chief Engineer for the Continental Army • 1880 - Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light and Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps. www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

  26. History of Hydroelectric • By 1940 - 40% of electrical generation was hydropower • Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled again between 1940 and 1980 • Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity comes from hydropower. www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

  27. www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

  28. Turbine Technologies • Reaction • fully immersed in fluid • shape of blades produces rotation www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

  29. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  30. Tidal Power Plant www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  31. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  32. Rotary Windmill www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

  33. Vertical Blades www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

  34. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  35. Energy from Wind • Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by wind farms is expected to increase • Western Europe currently leads in the development of wind power • Land used for wind farms also can be used for ranching or crops and most profits stay in local communities • North Dakota

  36. Optimization • Low Torque – Rapid Speed • good for electrical generation • High Torque – Slow Speed • good for pumping water • Small generator • low wind speeds • captures small amount of energy • Large generator • high wind speeds • may not turn at low speeds www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

  37. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  38. Source: American Wind Energy Association www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/wind_energy.ppt

  39. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  40. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  41. Energy from Biomass • In the developing world, most people heat homes and cook by burning wood or charcoal • Plant materials and animal wastes also can be converted into biofuels, • Biogas • Liquid ethanol • Liquid methanol • Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators to produce electricity and heat www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  42. Types of Biomass Fuel www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  43. Biorefinery • Fuels: • Ethanol • Renewable Diesel • Methanol • Hydrogen • Electricity • Heat • Products • Plastics • Foams • Solvents • Coatings • Chemical Intermediates • Phenolics • Adhesives • Fatty acids • Acetic Acid • Carbon black • Paints • Dyes, Pigments, and Ink • Detergents • Etc. Conversion Processes • Biomass • Feedstock • Trees • Forest Residues • Grasses • Agricultural Crops • Agricultural Residues • Animal Wastes • Municipal Solid Waste • Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation • Enzymatic Fermentation • - Gas/liquid Fermentation • - Thermochemical Processes • - Gasification/Pyrolysis • - Combustion • - Co-firing www.sc.doe.gov/bes/besac/BESACGarman08-02-01.ppt

  44. www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  45. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.ppt

  46. Geothermal Energy • Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings and to produce electricity • Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is removed faster than natural processes renew it, but the potential supply is vast

  47. Technology • Geothermal Heat Pumps • shallow ground energy • Direct-Use • hot water can be piped to facilities • Power Plants • steam and hot water drive turbines • dry steam plants • flash steam plants • binary cycle plants www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

  48. Dry Steam Power Plants • Hydrothermal fluids are primarily steam • Steam goes directly to turbine • No fossil fuels www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

  49. Flash Steam Power Plant • Fluids above 200 degrees Celsius • Fluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure • Fluid rapidly vaporizes • Steam drives turbine www.usd.edu/phys/courses/scst601/ geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt