Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 21 Living in the Environment , 13 th Edition, Miller - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 21 Living in the Environment , 13 th Edition, Miller

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  1. Solid and Hazardous WasteChapter 21Living in the Environment, 13th Edition, Miller Advanced Placement Environmental Science Dr. E Modified Ingold2012

  2. Wasting Resources • United States • 4.6% of the world's population • 33% of the world's solid waste • 75% of its hazardous waste

  3. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  4. Solid Waste • 98.5% is from • 1. Mining • 2. Oil and gas production • 3. Agriculture • 4. Sewage treatment • 5. Industry • 1.5% is municipal solid waste (MSW)

  5. Solid Waste • Problems • Disease (Rodent and pest reduction) • Fire potential • Decrease in the aesthetic quality of the environment www2.tltc.ttu.edu/jackson/solid%20waste.ppt

  6. MSW—more commonly known as trash or garbage—consists of everyday items Product packaging Grass clippings Furniture Clothing Bottles Food scraps Newspapers Appliances Paint Batteries Municipal Solid Waste http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  7. *Includes rubber and textiles Source: EPA Office of Solid Waste, Municipal Solid Waste Fact Sheet www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  8. MSW • In 1999, U.S. residents, businesses, and institutions produced more than 230 million tons of MSW • Approximately 4.6 pounds of waste per person per day (1680 pounds/year) • Up from 2.7 pounds per person per day in 1960 http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  9. MSW • Several MSW management practices prevent or divert materials from the wastestream • Source reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  10. Agriculture Waste • Livestock produce sewage • 200,000 hens, 1200 head of cattle in a feedlot, & 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as 20,000 people • In the U.S., there are 337 million hen, 96.1 million head of cattle & 58.7 million hogs which produce twice as much sewage as all the humans in the U.S.

  11. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  12. Source Reduction • Source reduction (waste prevention) means consuming and throwing away less • Purchasing durable, long-lasting goods • Seeking products and packaging that are as free of toxins as possible http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  13. Source Reduction • May be as complex as redesigning a product • use less raw material in production • have a longer life • be used again after its original use is completed • Source reduction actually prevents the generation of waste in the first place, it is the most preferable method of waste management and goes a long way toward protecting the environment http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  14. Source Reduction • Since 1977, the weight of 2-liter plastic soft drink bottles has been reduced from 68 grams each to 51 grams • That means that 250 million pounds of plastic per year has been kept out of the waste stream

  15. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  16. Reuse • Reusing items by repairing them, donating them to charity and community groups, or selling them • Use a product more than once, either for the same purpose or for a different purpose • Reusing, when possible, is preferable to recycling because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it can be used again

  17. Ways to Reuse • Using durable coffee mugs • Using cloth napkins or towels • Refilling bottles • Donating old magazines or surplus equipment • Reusing boxes • Turning empty jars into containers for leftover food • Purchasing refillable pens and pencils • Participating in a paint collection and reuse program

  18. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  19. Recycling • Recycling, including composting, diverted 64 million tons of material away from landfills and incinerators in 1999, up from 34 million tons in 1990 • Typical materials that are recycled include batteries, recycled at a rate of 96.9%, paper and paperboard at 41.9%, and yard trimmings at 45.3% • These materials and others may be recycled through curbside programs, drop-off centers, buy-back programs, and deposit systems http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  20. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/mswdata.htm

  21. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/mswdata.htm

  22. Benefits • Recycling • Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants • Saves energy, supplies valuable raw materials to industry • Creates jobs • Stimulates the development of greener technologies • Conserves resources for our children’s future • Reduces the need for new landfills and combustors • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions that affect global climate • In 1996, prevented the release of 33 million tons of carbon into the air—roughly the amount emitted annually by 25 million cars.

  23. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/mswdata.htm

  24. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  25. Composting • Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food and yard wastes, into humus, a soil-like material • Composting is nature's way of recycling organic wastes into new soil used in vegetable and flower gardens, landscaping, and many other applications http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  26. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/mswdata.htm

  27. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/mswdata.htm

  28. Benefits • Composting • Keeps organic wastes out of landfills • Provides nutrients to the soil • Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes) • Suppresses certain plant diseases • Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides • Protects soils from erosion • Assists pollution remediation http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm

  29. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  30. Landfills • Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), landfills that accept MSW are primarily regulated by state, tribal, and local governments • EPA, however, has established national standards these landfills must meet in order to stay open • The number of landfills in the United States is steadily decreasing—from 8,000 in 1988 to 2,300 in 1999 • The capacity, however, has remained relatively constant • New landfills are much larger than in the past

  31. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted by Congress in 1976 and amended in 1984. The act's primary goal is to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal. In addition, RCRA calls for conservation of energy and natural resources, reduction in waste generated, and environmentally sound waste management practices.

  32. Federal Landfill Standards • Location restrictions ensure that landfills are built in suitable geological areas away from faults, wetlands, flood plains, or other restricted areas • Liners are geomembrane or plastic sheets reinforced with two feet of clay on the bottom and sides of landfills

  33. Landfill Design The bottom liner may be layers of clay or other synthetic material (clay, plastic, or composite), which is placed on compacted soil. The bottom of the landfill is sloped and pipes along the bottom collect leachate. This leachate collections system must be very carefully planned and built by engineers. It is usually a system of pipes. (These pipes are among a gravel and sand layer.) The leachate is then pumped away and treated at a plant. Trash is dumped onto the landfill and consistently layered with soil to promote safer and better decomposition. A cover is placed over the landfill to keep water out (to prevent eventual leachate formation). Landfills also must have a system to dispose of methane gas. The structure of this system must be carefully engineered.

  34. Landfill Design

  35. Federal Landfill Standards • Operating practices such as compacting and covering waste frequently with several inches of soil help reduce odor; control litter, insects, and rodents; and protect public health • Groundwater monitoring requires testing groundwater wells to determine whether waste materials have escaped from the landfill

  36. Federal Landfill Standards • Closure and postclosure care include covering landfills and providing long-term care of closed landfills • Corrective action controls and cleans up landfill releases and achieves groundwater protection standards • Financial assurance provides funding for environmental protection during and after landfill closure (i.e., closure and postclosure care)

  37. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  38. Household Hazardous Waste • Common household items such as paints, cleaners, oils, batteries, and pesticides contain hazardous components • Labels – danger, warning, caution, toxic, corrosive, flammable, or poison identify products that might contain hazardous materials • Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste (HHW) • These products, if mishandled, can be dangerous to your health and the environment

  39. HW Facts and Figures • Americans generate 1.6 million tons of HHW per year • The average home can accumulate as much as 100 pounds of HHW in the basement and garage and in storage closets • During the 1980s, many communities started special collection days or permanent collection sites for handling HHW • In 1997, there were more than 3,000 HHW permanent programs and collection events throughout the United States

  40. Proper Handling • The best way to handle HHW is to reduce the amount initially generated by giving leftover products to someone else to use • To deal with household hazardous waste, many communities have set up collection programs to prevent HHW from being disposed of in MSW landfills and combustors – Glendale • These programs ensure the safe disposal of HHW in facilities designed to treat or dispose of hazardous waste • More than 3,000 HHW collection programs exist in the United States

  41. Benefits • Proper HHW Management • Reduction and recycling of HHW conserves resources and energy that would be expended in the production of more products • Reuse of hazardous household products can save money and reduce the need for generating hazardous substances • Proper disposal prevents pollution that could endanger human health and the environment

  42. Solid Waste • Source Reduction • Reuse • Recycling • Composting • Landfills • Hazardous Waste • Superfund Sites

  43. About Superfund • Years ago, people were less aware of how dumping chemical wastes might affect public health and the environment • On thousands of properties where such practices were intensive or continuous, the result was uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites, such as abandoned warehouses and landfills

  44. About Superfund • Citizen concern over the extent of this problem led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980 to locate, investigate, and clean up the worst sites nationwide • The EPA administers the Superfund program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments • The office that oversees management of the program is the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR)

  45. Superfund Legislation • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabilities Act (CERCLA); 1980 • “Superfund” to clean up abandoned sites • Hazard Ranking System (HRS) • National Priority List (NPL) • Reauthorized in 1986 (SARA)

  46. Intended as a solution to those previously contaminated sites with no-one to pay (no PRPs) • Two levels • Emergency response • immediate threat to human health or environment • Long term remediation • if Hazard Ranking System (HRS) shows a score over 27.5, it is added to the National Priorities List (NPL) for Superfund cleanup • 1300 sites on NPL in 1990, more to come