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AGENDA PowerPoint Presentation

AGENDA

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AGENDA

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  1. AGENDA • DAY 1 • OVERVIEW AND BRIEF HISTORY OF AI IN CNMI • VIDEO • LEARNING OUTCOMES AND EXPECTATIONS • TERMINOLOGY • PRINCIPLES IN AI

  2. AGENDA • DAY 2 • AI PROTOCOL • THE AI KIT • SEMEN TANK • PROPER SEMEN HANDLING • COW SELECTION AND CULLING • FACILITIES • ESTROUS DETECTION AND SYNCHRONIZATION

  3. AGENDA • DAY 3 • ACTUAL DEMONSTRATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE • DETAILED AI TECHNIQUE • AI FORUM • SCHEDULING OF AI SERVICE TO TINIAN AND ROTA

  4. Western SARE Professional Plus Producer Grant • FW07-307 • Project Title: Livestock Genetic Improvement in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands • $29,794 • Species: Swine and Cattle

  5. Dr Allan Sabaldica- Principal Investigator • Cooperators • Capt. Ernie Torres (Saipan) • Thomas Fleming (Tinian) • Brian Mendiol (Rota) Project Duration December 2008- May 31, 2010

  6. Brief History • In 2000, ADAP Demonstration of Breeding Swine Through Use of Artificial Insemination • In 2007,through producers request to find solutions to inbreeding problems in livestock • Western SARE funded in December 2008

  7. HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION • Documents from 1322 AD state that an Arab chief wanted to mate his mare to a stallion owned by his rival. So he performed an amateur version of the AI • Then in 1780, Spallanzani succesfully bred two dogs with the use of AI leading to him being the inventor of Artificial Insemination • Mass breeding came later in 1931 by an AI cooperation in Denmark

  8. VIDEO CATTLE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

  9. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Artificial Insemination (AI) and techniques in cattle • Advantages/ Disadvantages of AI • Current practices in the mainland • Estrous synchronization, its purpose and protocols • Heat detection and timing of insemination

  10. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Semen handling procedure • AI equipment , maintenance and service • AI facilities • Importance of Body Condition scores (BCS) for AI

  11. EXPECTATIONS • PRODUCER GETS FIRST HAND INFORMATION ABOUT AI • PRODUCERS ADOPT THE TECHNOLOGY TO THEIR OPERATION • BUILD CONTINUOUS INTEREST TO UPGRADE LIVESTOCK GENETICS • INCORPORATE AI AS PART OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

  12. TERMINOLGY • ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION • The technique of placing semen from the male in the reproductive tract of the female by means other than natural service • ESTRUS (HEAT) • The recurrent, restricted period of sexual receptivity in cows and heifers. Non pregnant cows and heifers usually come into in heat 18-21 days following their previous estrus

  13. TERMINOLOGY • INBREEDING • Production of offspring from parents more closely related than the average of a population • Ovulation • Release of the female germ cell (egg) by the ovary. Cows usually ovulate several hours (up to 15 hours) after the end of estrus or standing heat

  14. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY • Cattle

  15. Advantages/Disadvantages • Advantages of Natural Breeding • Simplicity: • Cost: • Timing: A cow is in heat from 12 to 36 hours, and after breeding naturally semen can live for about 24 hours. It's not essential to bred at exactly the correct moment, and it's easy to repeat the breeding for a few days.

  16. Disadvantages of Natural Breeding • Difficulty in managing a bull: • Variety: limited • Cost: expensive

  17. Advantages of Artificial Insemination • Increases the maximum use of superior sires • It allows easier access for consumers to obtaining high quality sperm • Compare herd easier • Increase accuracy and selection intensity • Introduce new genetics easier • Cost: Once you have the necessary equipment, frozen semen is much less expensive than paying a breeding fee. Typical prices range from $5 to $25 per "straw" of semen. You can also avoid the costs of housing and feeding a bull. • Variety

  18. The semen being used can be tested for diseases • Can identify genetic defects • Lead to genetic improvement in herds and cattle stock

  19. Disadvantages of Artificial Insemination. • Timing is critical: The best time to AI a cow is right at the end of the heat cycle. Defrosted semen remains viable at most a few hours and is usually immediately after defrosting. Therefore, it's important to know exactly when the cow went into heat and how long she remains in heat to be successful. • Cost: The initial cost of the equipment can be high. The most expensive equipment is a tank to store liquid nitrogen (used $100-300, new $600-1000). It cost about $35-50 dollars to fill the tank with liquid nitrogen, and this must be repeated every 2-4 months as the liquid nitrogen evaporates. A tank will usually hold 300-1000 straws so it's possible to share among several goat owners. Some people rent space in a tank. The remaining equipment (lights, sheaths, etc.) totals less than $100. • The semen is not being handled properly

  20. AI Equipments, facilities and Supplies • liquid nitrogen tank, • "straws" of semen, • tweezers (for removing straws from the tank), • a straw cutter, (for cutting off the wax plug keeping the semen in the straw), • an open ended glass speculum, • a small light (to make the cervix visible), • a thermos (for holding warm water to defrost the semen), a thermometer (for measuring the temperature of the water), • an insemination gun (A thin metal tube with a plunger to push the semen out of the straw) and disposable plastic sheaths (to hold the straw while in the gun). • Proper working facilities (working chute) • Long gloves, paper towels. Clock and record book

  21. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION PROCEDURE • Rectovaginal technique. • With this technique, the technician inserts a disposable catheter containing thawed semen into the vagina and guides it into the cervix with a gloved hand inserted into the cow's rectum. Because the vaginal walls are made up of thin muscle, he can easily feel the catheter through the wall between the rectum and vagina. He passes the catheter through the cervix into the uterus and slowly deposits part of the semen, then deposits the rest into the cervix as he withdraws the catheter. This process may be repeated later to decrease the chance of conception failure.

  22. SEMEN EXTENSION • SEMEN EXTENDERS increases the number of females to be inseminated from one ejaculation. • A normal ejaculated from a dairy bull will contain 5-10 billion sperm which can be inseminated to 300 to 1000 cows if fully extended • E.g. egg yolk, pasturized or homogenius milk

  23. A good extender not only adds volume ejaculate but favors sperm survival and longevity • Penicillin and streptomycin are added to semen extenders-inhibit bacterial growth and reduce danger of spreading diseases such as vibriosis • Commercial available extenders

  24. SEMEN STORAGE • Dry ice and alcohol (100 degrees F)-fertility decline s gradually • Liquide Nitrogen (-320 degrees F)-preferred method because there is no deterioration with age

  25. Artificial Insemination Checklist • Keep breeding kit clean and organized • Identify cow & check breeding record • Wash hands • Have sleeve, sheath, gun, scissors and towels ready before thawing semen • Prepare a water bath at 90-95 degrees and place near tank

  26. Checklist…. • Keep semen below frost line while removing straws for thawing • Remove straws within 10 second • Shake straw to remove excess nitrogen and quickly plunge into water bath for 4o-45 seconds • Insemination gun and sheath should also be approximately 95 degrees and not extremely hot or cold to touch

  27. Checklist… • Dry straw completely and check semen ID prior to loading gun • Clip ½ squarely from the end of the straw and apply the sheath. Lock o-ring firmly in place • Wrap prepared gun in dry towel or protective sheath and tuck close to body • Clean vulva thoroughly prior to insertion of breeding gun

  28. Checklist… • Insert insemination gun at 30 degree angle to avoid the urethral opening • Pass rod through cervix, check location (uterine body) with tip of index finger and slowly deposit ½ of semen • Recheck location and deposit the rest of the semen • Slowly remove gun and check for infection, blood, and semen feedback inside the sheath • Recheck semen ID

  29. Checklist… • Properly dispose of sheath, towels, and gloves • Clean gun if needed • Record breeding information on barn chart and/or other record keeping system • Recheck temperatureof water bath prior to thawing additional straws and repeat the steps listed above.

  30. Thank you very much!!!