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20 Steps to a Research Article

20 Steps to a Research Article

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20 Steps to a Research Article

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  1. 20 Steps to a Research Article

  2. Beth Fischer Michael Zigmond Survival Skills and Ethics Program www.pitt.edu/~survival

  3. Acknowledgments The 20 steps represent a slightly modified version of the method proposed by the Council of Biology Editors in “Scientific Writing for Graduate Students: A Manual on the Teaching of Scientific Writing.” New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1968.

  4. 1. Choose authors 2. Publish? 3. Write title 4. write synopsis 5. Authors ok? 6. Determine form 7. Pick journal 8. Stock sections 9. Tables, figures 10. Outline paper 11. Write first draft 12. Revise manuscript 13. Check references 14. Title, abstract 15. Preparing figures 16. Read instructions 17. Get feedback 18. Submit manuscript 19. Deal w/ review 20. Check proofs How to Write and Publish an Article in 20 Easy Steps

  5. Step 1 Determine the authors

  6. Step 2 Decide it is time to publish

  7. Start writing • before all data collected • before equipment dismantled • before you have moved on

  8. Step 3 Create a working title

  9. Step 4 Draft an abstract

  10. Step 4 Write short abstract 1. questions 2. hypothesis 3. observations 4. relation to past 5. conclusions

  11. Step 5 Reevaluate the list of authors

  12. Step 6 Determine the basic form of article

  13. Types of scientific papers 1. research articles • full articles • rapid communications • short communications

  14. Types of scientific papers 1. research articles • full articles • rapid communications • short communications 2. non-research articles • review articles • book chapters • letter to editors

  15. Step 7 Select the journal

  16. 1. focus 2. availability 3. reputation 4. format 5. appearance - text - illustrations 6. time to print 7. charges - page charges - color charges Step 7: Selecting the journal

  17. Instructions to Authors • length of abstracts and article

  18. Instructions to Authors • length of abstracts and article • citations in text Other researcher have found that x increases y.37 Other researcher have found that x increases y (Adams et al, 1993).

  19. Instructions to Authors • length of abstracts and article • citations in text • style of references

  20. Instructions to Authors • length of abstracts and article • citations in text • style of references • abbreviations permitted

  21. Step 8 Stock the “section reservoirs”

  22. Step 9 Construct tables, figures, legends

  23. Step 9 Construct tables and figures 1. tables and figures should stand on own

  24. Step 9 Construct tables and figures 1. tables and figures should stand on own 2. should be sure of results before writing

  25. Step 10 Outline the paper

  26. Step 10 The outline - A road map 1. what are the issues? 2. what will you say about them? 3. in what order?

  27. Step 11 Write a first draft

  28. Focus on getting your ideas onto paper • don’t worry about grammar, aesthetics

  29. Focus on getting your ideas onto paper • don’t worry about grammar, aesthetics • brainstorm

  30. Focus on getting your ideas onto paper • don’t worry about grammar, aesthetics • brainstorm • cite references in text (REF)

  31. “Write freely and as rapidly as possible and throw the whole thing down on paper. Never correct or rewrite until the whole thing is down. Rewrite in process is usually found to be an excuse for not going on.” John Steinbeck

  32. “If you try to write and edit at the same time, you will do neither well.” Charles H. Sides

  33. Writer’s block • I don’t know where to begin • I don’t know what to say • I’m not a good writer

  34. I don’t know where to begin • use your outline

  35. I don’t know where to begin • use your outline • write the easiest section first

  36. I don’t know what to say • find out more about the subject

  37. I’m not a good writer • no one’s first draft is readable

  38. I’m not a good writer • no one’s first draft is readable • editing is much easier than writing

  39. I’m not a good writer • no one’s first draft is readable • editing is much easier than writing • just do it!

  40. Step 12 Revise the manuscript

  41. Step 12 A. make major alterations

  42. Step 12 A. make major alterations B. polish the style

  43. Step 13 Check the references

  44. Step 14 Write the final title and abstract

  45. Step 15 Review the instructions to authors

  46. Step 16 Prepare the final illustrations

  47. Step 16 TOP  B.A. Fischer and M.J. Zigmond “Writing Research Articles” figure 2 of 4

  48. Step 17 Get feedback on the manuscript

  49. Step 18 Submit the manuscript to the editor

  50. Submit the manuscript • the text • hard copy • diskette