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# Simplex Method Meeting 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Simplex Method Meeting 5. Course : D0744 - Deterministic Optimization Year : 2009. What to learn?. Artificial variables Big-M method. The Facts. To start, we need a canonical form

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### Simplex MethodMeeting 5

Course : D0744 - Deterministic Optimization

Year : 2009

### What to learn?

Artificial variables

Big-M method

### The Facts

To start, we need a canonical form

If we have a  constraint with a nonnegative right-hand side, it will contain an obvious basic variable (which?) after introducing a slack var.

If we have an equality constraint, it contains no obvious basic variable

If we have a  constraint with a nonnegative right-hand side, it contains no obvious basic variable even after introducing a surplus var.

2x + 3y  5  2x + 3y + s = 5, s  0 (s basic)

2x + 3y = 5  ??????? Infeasible if x=y=0!

2x + 3y  5  2x + 3y -s = 5, s  0 (??????)

Infeasible if x=y=0!

??????????????????

### One Equality???

2x + 3y = 5  2x + 3y + a = 5, a = 0 (I)

(s basic, but it should be 0!)

How do we force a = 0? This is of course not feasible if x=y=0, as 0+0+0 5!

2x + 3y = 5  2x + 3y + a = 5, a = 0 (I)

(a basic, but it should be 0!)

How do we force a = 0? This is of course not feasible if x=y=0, as 0+0+0 5

Idea: solve a first problem with

Min {a | constraint (I) + a  0 + other constraints }!

### Artificial Variables

Notice: In an equality constraint, the extra variable is called an artificial variable.

For instance, in

2x + 3y + a = 5, a = 0 (I)

a is an artificial variable.

### One Inequality  ???

2x + 3y  5  2x + 3y - s = 5, s  0 (I)

s could be the basic variable,

but it should be  0

and for x=y=0, it is -5 !

How do we force s  0?

?

2x + 3y  5  2x + 3y - s = 5, s  0 (I)

s could be the basic variable,

but it should be  0

and it is -5 for x=y=0!

How do we force s  0?

By making it 0!

how?

2x + 3y  5  2x + 3y - s = 5, s  0 (I)

s could be basic, but it should be  0

and it is -5 for x=y=0!

How do we force s  0?

By making it 0! But we have to start with a canonical form… so

treat is as an equality constraint!

2x + 3y - s+ a = 5, s  0, a  0 and Min a

### Artificial Variables

Notice: In a  inequality constraint, the extra variable is called an artificial variable.

For instance, in

2x + 3y – s+ a = 5, s  0, a  0 (I)

a is an artificial variable.

In a sense, we allow temporarily a small amount of cheating, but in the end we cannot allow it!

### What if we have many such = and  constraints?

7x - 3y – s1+ a1 = 6, s1,a1  0 (I)

2x + 3y + a2 = 5, a2  0 (II)

a1 and a2 are artificial variables, s1 is a surplus variable.

One minimizes their sum:

Min {a1+a2 | a1, a2  0, (I), (II), other constraints}

i.e., one minimizes the total amount of cheating!

### Then What?

We have two objectives:

Get a “feasible” canonical form

Maximize our original problem

Two methods:

big M method

phase 1, then phase 2

### Big-M Method

Combine both objectives :

(1) Min iai

(2) Max j cjxj

into a single one:

(3) Max – M iai + j cjxj

where M is a large number, larger than anything subtracted from it.

If one minimizes j cjxj

then the combined objective function is

Min M iai + j cjxj

### The Big M Method

The simplex method algorithm requires a starting bfs.

Previous problems have found starting bfs by using the slack variables as our basic variables.

If an LP have ≥ or = constraints, however, a starting bfs may not be readily apparent.

In such a case, the Big M method may be used to solve the problem. Consider the following problem.

### Example

Bevco manufactures an orange-flavored soft drink called Oranj by combining orange soda and orange juice. Each orange soda contains 0.5 oz of sugar and 1 mg of vitamin C. Each ounce of orange juice contains 0.25 oz of sugar and 3 mg of vitamin C. It costs Bevco 2¢ to produce an ounce of orange soda and 3¢ to produce an ounce of orange juice. Bevco’s marketing department has decided that each 10-oz bottle of Oranj must contain at least 30 mg of vitamin C and at most 4 oz of sugar. Use linear programming to determine how Bevco can meet the marketing department’s requirements at minimum cost.