Acid Lake Remediation. pH Probe. Peristaltic Pump. “Acid Rain”. “Lake”. Lake Effluent. pH Meter. Where Are We Going?. Source of Acid Rain Fate of strong acids in the environment Reactions Carbonate System Dissociation constants P notation Alpha notation Acid Neutralizing Capacity
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Combustion product precursors to acid rain
moles of protons/L
Total carbonate species
(pH, pK1, pK2, CT)
Add acid to a carbonate solution at pH 9. What happens?
The total concentration of carbonate species is affected by this exchange
Beware of precision!
Function CMFR(Influent, t, theta, initial)
CMFR = Influent * (1 - Exp(-t / theta)) + initial * (Exp(-t / theta))
invp = 10 ^ (-x)
alpha0CO2 = 1 / (1 + 10 ^ (-6.3) / invp(pH) + 10 ^ (-6.3) * 10 ^ (-10.3) / invp(pH) ^ 2)
Function ANCclosed(pH, Ct)
ANCclosed = Ct * (alpha1CO2(pH) + 2 * alpha2CO2(pH)) + 10 ^ (-14) / invp(pH) - invp(pH)
10-1.5 mol/(L atm)
ANCopen = ANCclosed(pH, invp(5) / alpha0CO2(pH))
T = titrant
S = sample
Ve= ___________ volume
= volume of titrant added so that ANC = 0
Need to find ANCT and Ve
NT = [H+]
This equation is always true, but when do we know what ANC is? _______________________________________
When pH is so low that no reactions are occurring.
For pH << pK1
When is this true? ____________
Finally! An equation for equivalent volume!
First Gran Function
Volume of Titrant (mL)
abscissa intercept of Ve
F1 plotted as a function of Vt. The abscissa has units of mL of titrant and the ordinate is a Gran function with units of [H+].
NAPAP Emissions Inventory, Nov. 1989.
minerals in watershed
spread on watershed
meter into stream
apply directly to lake