Hinduism Bridget Luly Allison Metzger Aly Eberheart Period 5 World Religions
The Religious Basics • No known founder • Polytheistic • Origins go back further than any major religion • Believe in reincarnation • Often called a family of religions • Born into a certain class • Meditation • India is their holy land- many places named after gods and goddesses • Arranged marriages • The role of women ranges from fair to intolerant, depending on the religious scripture • Male dominated society, women’s role is important in keeping house and peace keeping of marriage • Not only based on worship and rituals, much of Hinduism has to do with the way one lives his life
A Day in the Life of a Hindu • Rise at dawn, and utter the name of the deity of his choice before speaking to anyone. • He is to think of the agenda for his day and try to achieve righteousness and wealth. • Daily bath is a ritual-very specific process clarified in the scriptures. • While bathing in the river, man is to scoop up water and while releasing it back into the water, recite mantras to please deities and the deceased. • Morning prayer-readings from sacred scriptures, burning of incense, etc. (most have a room or spot specifically for worship). • Worship throughout the day (morning, noon and evening. This pays debt to the deities).
Hindu Values and Ideals • Many different religious scriptures which discuss theology, philosophy and mythology- Vedas and Upanishads. • Karma (effects of actions in past life) and Dharma (one’s righteous duty). • Reincarnation. • Moksha- like nirvana- release from cycle of being reborn. • Strongly oppose abortion. • Remarriage and divorce are not acceptable in society. • The caste system is strictly followed. It has been outlawed in India, but they still practice it. • Strive for success. • Meditation, prayer and yoga are extremely important. • Food is very sacred and considered a gift from the gods • Prasada, or an offering to deities is very important • Violence is unacceptable. They do not kill animals for food. • Cows are sacred animals • Temples are a sacred place, but are not visited regularly. • Life is very involved with nature and the elements
Gods and Goddesses • Shiva- the goddess of destruction. • Brahman- the creator. • Vishnu- the preserver. • These are the three main gods they worship daily, but there are other gods such as Ganesh, the lord of success.
Gods and Goddesses cont. • In temples, and around temples, you can find all kinds of soils to incorporate the gods • White Soil: Brahmin • Red Soil: Kshatriya (warrior caste) • Yellow Soil: Vaishya • Black Soil: Shudra • Smell and tastes also signify gods • Sweet: Brahmin • Sour: Kshatriya • Bitter: Vaishya • Astringent: Shudra • Festivals are held for gods throughout the year. • Gods are to be kept in mind throughout the day. • Worshiping is very important, but does not have to be done in a temple. Sri Veeramakaliamman Temple is one of the most popular Hindu temples.
Four Stages of Life • Entire life is divided into four stages. • Dharma-the practice of righteousness • Artha-retaining material wealth • Kama-the enjoyment of sensual pleasure • Moksa-final liberation/release 1. Student- A time of total freedom with no obligations. 2. Householder-Starts with marriage. The man is supposed to devote his life to increase his wealth. 3.Forrest Dweller- With his wife, he moves out of the village. He is to devote himself to non-worldly activities. 4.Renouncer- Last years of his life. Spent homeless and without possessions, wandering to holy places until death. The pursuit of Moska.
The Caste System http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBxy1R0jitM (stop at 3:08) • Varnas- social classes • Most of the rules that govern Hindu life apply to males of the higher caste only • The four castes came from the sacrifice of a cosmic, humanlike being, the purusa. • Brahmins came from the head, from its arms came the Ksatriyas, from it’s thighs the Vais’yas and from its legs the Sudras. • Everyone born outside of the caste system are considered the Untouchables. They have recently chosen to call themselves dalits which means opressed. • Brahmins were to be the people of the sacred word and rituals required for the good of society. • Ksatriyas were to be warriors and rulers. They possessed a lot of physical strength and courage. • Vais’yas were meant to be the backbone of the economy and business people. • Sudras were to be servants and formed the base of the Hindu society. They were to serve the three higher castes. • People were born into their varnas on based on the karma they had accumulated in their previous lives.
Marriage • Arranged marriages. • Not allowed to get remarried. It’s considered unacceptable. • If a woman’s husband becomes a social outcast, is evil or is missing for a number of years, the woman can get a divorce. • The halves (man and woman) together create divinity. • If a man and woman of different castes married, their children belonged to the lower caste. • Weddings are very colorful. Different colors represent different things. The color red represents auspiciousness. • There are many elaborate rituals which the bride, groom and the bride’s father perform throughout the ceremony. • Bride typically gets a red Bendi dot on their forehead. Everyone used to wear Bendi dots, but now it is typically only for married women. Some men still wear them. This signifies a third eye, where mind is focused for meditation. The art of henna is a bridal tradition.
Thaipusam Festival • “They believe the piercings will leave no scars and they will feel no pain, protected from bodily harm by the strict regime of abstinence, piety and vegetarianism they follow for a month before the festival” • This Festival honored Shiva’s youngest son, Lord Murugan. • The people with piercings carry wooden kavadis, or portable altars, for three miles to Sri Thendayuthapani Temple where the festival ends. • The festival ends with offerings and pouring of milk over the statue of Murudan. • Body piercing is not restricted to Hindus, many Buddhists practice these sorts of festivals too. • Hindus have multiple festivals throughout the year, dedicated to different gods, this is just one example.
Religious Practices • Most worship all or some gods. These main gods are Brahman, Shiva, Vishnu. • Some ignore gods all together and focus on realization of one’s self through meditation. • Most follow the three paths (margas) to liberation: bhaktimarga (the path of devotion), jnanamarga (the path of knowledge or philosophy), and karmamarga (the path of works and action). • Many only attend temples during religious festivals. • Try to find a divine balance everyday between internal peace and worship with the gods. • Mantras (prayer), yoga and meditation are practiced daily. This connects the people with the gods and one’s self. • Faith is also expressed in art Meditation On Lord ShivaShaantam padmaasanastham shashadharamakutam panchavaktram trinetram,Shoolam vajram cha khadgam parashumabhayadam dakshinaange vahantam;Naagam paasham cha ghantaam damaruka sahitam chaankusham vaamabhaage,Naanaalankaara deeptam sphatika maninibham paarvateesham namaami. MEANING: I prostrate myself before the five-faced Lord of Parvati, who is adorned with various ornaments, who shines like the crystal jewel, who is seated peacefully in the lotus pose, with moon-crested crown, with three eyes, wearing trident, thunderbolt, sword and axe on the right side, who holds the serpent, noose, bell, damaru and spear on the left side, and who gives protection from all fear to His devotees
Hindu Family • Families are very close. It is important to work together and show kindness. • They have specific names for family members, and are close to extended family as well. • Paternal grandfather…Dada Paternal grandmother………….Dadi Maternal grandfather………….Nana Maternal grandmother …………Nani Father………………... Bap, Pita Mother……………….. Ma, Mata Brother……………….. Bhai, Bhaya Sister…………………. Didi, Bhen Father's brother……… Chacha Father's brother's wife...Chachi Mother's brother…….. Mama Mother's brother's wife…. Mami Mother's sister…… Mausi, Massi Mother's sister's husband….. Mausa Father's sister…. Phuphi Father's sister's husband…. Phua, Bhua
Hindu Dress • Hindu dress is supposed to be simple and elegant. Women are dressed to look modest. • Married men wear a white dhoti and a hat called a kurta • Women typically wear a sari, which can be worn in many styles, but the most popular is that ‘nivi’ style. • Women sometimes wear a tunic with pants. This is called a salwarkameez. • Hindu clothing is loose and does not require tailoring. Tight clothes are promiscuous and not acceptable. • The clothes are there to serve their purpose of covering up, not to make a fashion statement. • In Britain and other places, men can typically be found in Western clothes. Women stick more to traditional dress.
The Philosophy of Yoga http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-Qhjlfoga4 • Hatha yoga is the yoga we are most familiar • with today, which consists of bodily exercises. It is also known as Raja Yoga, which means the Royal Path. • The word yoga is derived from the root yuj( to yoke, to join, to combine) It is used in India as religious practice, but is central to Hinduism. • A contemplation of one reality. • This form of yoga helps people free themselves from suffering.
Works Cited • http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/practices.htm • http://hinduism.about.com/od/prayersmantras/a/5prayers.htm • http://hinduism.iskcon.com/lifestyle/807.htm • http://www.brides.com/weddingstyle/cakes/feature/article/113952 • http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/hinduism/hinduism.html • Klostermaier, K. Klaus. Hinduism. Oxford. Oneworld Publications, 1998