What Do The Observations and Models Tell Us About Emissions?. BC at surface. BC C-130 #11 April 19th. RF16 highly processed plume. RF7 highly processed plume. Field Experiments Employ Mobile “Super-Sites” & Provide Opportunities to Characterize Emissions. The Informatics Problem:
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BC at surface
BC C-130 #11 April 19th
RF7 highly processed plume
Field Experiments Employ Mobile “Super-Sites” & Provide Opportunities to Characterize Emissions
The Informatics Problem:
Source Information Air Mass Markers
Model Runs w/wo SourceSectors
Freidli et al., JGR submitted
Observed CO –Sacshe et al.
Observed aerosol potassium
- Weber et al.
Large-Scale Structure is Captured by Model– But Peaks are Underestimated
Data: Kondo et al., Thorton, Sacshe
--- CO > 700
--- CO > 600
--- CO > 500
What does this tell us about the model?
Observed and Modeled Ratios Can Be Classified By Source Region Using Trajectories - Age Can Also Be Estimated
The BC and CO Concentrations are Underpredicted – but the Ratios are Accurately Captured!!
This analysis suggests we need to look for improvements in a specific sector
DC-8 Flight 9
The Importance of Fossil, Biofuels and Open Burning Varies by Region -- Richness of Emissions Data Base Can be Exploited
Observation Based Reconstruction
Can Useful Emissions Information Be Reconstructed Using Observed Ratios (or Concentrations) ?
Two Relationships Are Observed
Red Points Come From SE Asia –With Heavy Influence From Biomass Burning
Kasabhatla et al., GRL, 2003
With support from NSF, NASA (ACMAP,GTE), NOAA, DOE, JST
CO fossil CO-Biomass
Sea Salt Radon
Lightning NOx Dust 12 size binsCFORS/STEM-2K1 Model Data Flow Chart
(JMA, NCEP, ECMWF
wind velocities, temperature, pressure,
water vapor content, cloud water
content, rain water content
and PV etc.
Dust, Sea Salt,
Volcanic SO2 Emissions
Anthropogenic Area Emissions
(fire counts, ozone columns, sea surface temperature, etc.)
Extension to particles
BEJ (Beijing), TIJ (Tianjin), QID (Qingdao), SHA (Shanghai), HOK (Hongkong), SEL (Seoul-Inchon), PUS (Pusan), TOK (Tokyo)