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Is Mount Everest in Danger of Becoming a Mountain of Garbage?. By Melissa Smith. Guiding questions:. 1. Where is Mount Everest and why do people want to climb it? 2. What does a person need to do to prepare for a Mount Everest climb and what type of equipment do they need?

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Is Mount Everest in Danger of Becoming a Mountain of Garbage?

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    1. Is Mount Everest in Danger of Becoming a Mountain of Garbage? By Melissa Smith

    2. Guiding questions: 1. Where is Mount Everest and why do people want to climb it? 2. What does a person need to do to prepare for a Mount Everest climb and what type of equipment do they need? 3. Who has climbed Mount Everest? 4. What is the economic and ecological impact of climbing Mount Everest? 5. What can be done to reduce the damage?

    3. Mount Everest lies in the Himalayan Mountain range that forms a border between Nepal and China • At 29,028 feet (5 and a half miles above sea level), it is the tallest mountain in the world. • Named after Sir George Everest , a British surveyor-general of India. • It was first called Peak XV and is also called "Chomolungma" by Tibetans and Sherpas, which means "Mother Goddess of the Earth.“ The Napalese call it “Sagarmatha”, or “Goddess of the Sky.” • Due to the force of colliding tectonic plates, Mount Everest continues grow in height at the rate of about 1 centimeter per year. Source:

    4. Climbing Mount Everest is a dangerous under taking • Temperatures extremes can range from 32 degrees Fahrenheit to as low as -94 degrees Fahrenheit at the top. • By the end of the 2010 climbing season, there had been 5,104 ascents to the summit by about 3,142 different individuals. • About 9% of people die trying to climb Mount Everest. To date over 200 people have died and many of their bodies remain on the mountain. • Avalanches, deadly storms, frost bite, altitude sickness, crevasses, snow blindness, hypothermia and sunburn are all dangers climbers face. • Everest climbers usually climb in April or May. They do not climb the mountain in one leg. Instead, they set up base camps at certain heights. Source:

    5. At the top of high mountains, the air is thinner and there is less oxygen available to breathe. Climbers become tired more quickly and their ability to think clearly is affected. To adjust to these conditions, climbers climb the mountain in stages over several weeks to avoid altitude sickness and carry supplemental oxygen with them. Source: At sea level- breathing is effortless At 9,000 feet – respiration increases, brain swells slightly causing headache and nausea At 18,000 feet- there are no permanent settlements on Earth at this level, lungs give off more carbon dioxide which disrupts blood’s pH balance, kidney’s discharge more water leading to dehydration At 29,000 feet- also known as “The Death Zone”, climbers take in only 30% of oxygen molecules compared to sea level, body begins to break down, heart races even when at rest, climbers may have hallucinations, pulmonary or cerebral edema, loss of consciousness and death

    6. Why do people want to climb Mount Everest? • For a personal challenge and to test their physical limits • To break records other people have set or to honor them. • For scientific research • World famous climber George Mallory’s reason was “Because it’s there.” • This region has become famous as a cultural site with very unique cultures and people.

    7. Famous expeditions on Mount Everest 1924 George Mallory and Andrew Irving disappear near the top of the summit. It is not known if they were on their way up or down from the summit. Mallory’s body is found 75 years later. May 29,1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay become the first to summit Mount Everest Source: Source:

    8. Who has climbed Mount Everest? First woman- May 16, 1975, Junko Tbei (Japan) Youngest person- May, 2010, Jordan Romero (U.S. A.) age 13 Biggest fatality- 1996, 16 people die when caught in a sudden storm near summit First without supplemental oxygen- August 5, 1978, Reinhold Messner (Italy) and Peter Habeler (Austria) First blind person- 2001, Erik Weihenmayer (United States) First cell phone call- 2007, Rob Baber, (England), "It's cold, it's fantastic, and the Himalayas are everywhere," he said in the call. Oldest person to summit- 2007, Katsusuke Yanagisawa (Japan), age 71 The most summits- May 22, 2010, Apa Sherpa (Nepal) broke his own world record and reached the summit of Mt. Everest for the 20th time. Source:

    9. What does a person need to climb Mount Everest?All of this and much, much more!Source:

    10. Equipment for climbing Mount Everest is expensive! • The suit pictured at right costs about $1000 • Right click on these equipment lists to get an idea of everything you would need to take:

    11. To help you take all your gear, you will need to hire porters and Sherpas • Sherpas are ethnic people from the mountainous region of Nepal and practice Buddhism. • They have adapted to the high altitude conditions and serve as mountain guides and porters on climbing expeditions. • A sherpa will organize and lead the trek. The bulky gear is carried by the lesser paid porters. • They are highly regarded as elite mountaineers and are known for their hardiness, expertise, and experience at high altitudes. Source:

    12. How would you train to get ready for a climb to Everest? • Plan ahead- you need to be in peak physical condition • Running- 6 to 8 miles/day on hilly terrain with a backpack • Weight training- for upper body strength • Take vitamins and health supplements to boost your immune system • Climb smaller mountains • Gain weight- you will lose about 20% of your body weight on Everest • Mental preparation- understand it won’t be easy and picture yourself succeeding! Source:

    13. How much does it cost to climbMount Everest?* Here are a few of the expenses you should plan on: • Passports and Visas- $75.00+ • Guide- $25,000- $125,000 • Airfare- New York city to Kathmandu $2,500-$8,000 • Climbing fee and permits- $25,000 (per person) • Guide Service- $59,000 to $77,000 (per group) • Equipment and clothing- $8,000- $15,000 • Trainer- $8,000 • Garbage and human waste disposal- $4000 • Oxygen- $300 per tank, you will need at least 6 tanks • Other fees- Sherpa fee, Yaks, helicopter transportation, cooks, food, doctor, immunizations and don’t forget a new camera! Ball park Estimate: $70,000-$100,000 *Prices are figured from the South route. The North route may be cheaper but is considered more dangerous.

    14. Despite being away for about 3 months, you will only be climbing for about a week, depending on weather and terrain. Below is a sample of an abbreviated itinerary: 1.Arrive Kathmandu (1,300 meters). 2.In Kathmandu - Bring Passport to Chinese Embassy, for Visa. Logistics, training, purchasing, packing, training, visit temples, city tour, shopping. Hotel and meals at members minimal cost. 3.In Kathmandu - Pick up passport from Chinese Embassy. Logistics, training, purchasing, packing, training, visit temples, city tour, shopping. 4.Bus to Tibet; drive to Nyalam (3,750 meters). 5.Rest inNyalam (3,750 meters). Walk around the local hills. 6.Bus to Tingri (4,342 meters). 7.Rest in Tingri. Explore surrounding hills. 8.Drive to Chinese Base camp (5200meters). Camp. 9.Rest in Chinese base. Organize equipment and supplies. Camp. 10.Walk gently in the hills surrounding Chinese base. 11.Rest in Chinese base. Organize equipment and supplies. Camp. 12.Walk with the yaks halfway to advanced base to interim camp (5,800meters). Camp. 13.Rest in interim camp. 15.Walk with the yaks to advanced base (ABC) at 6400 meters. Camp. 16.Rest in Advanced base. Extensive training. Organize supplies. 17.Rest in Advanced base. Extensive training. Organize supplies. 18.Walk to Camp 1 North Col (7000m). Return to ABC. 19.Rest in ABC. 21.Walk to Camp 1. Sleep there. 23.Walk back down to Chinese base. 24.Rest in Chinese base 25.Walk up to interim camp. 28.Walk up to ABC. 29.Walk to Camp 1, sleep there. 30.Walk to Camp 2, sleep there. 31.Explore route to Camp 3 (8300 meters), return to camp 2, sleep there. 38.Walk up to ABC. 39.Walk to Camp 1. Sleep there. 40.Walk to Camp 2, sleep there. 44.Descend to ABC. 45.Walk back down to Chinese base. 46.Rest in Chinese base. 49.Walk up to interim camp. 50.Walk back up to ABC. 51.Walk to Camp 1. Sleep there. 52.Walk to Camp 2, sleep there. 53.Walk to Camp 3, sleep there. 54.Attempt summit if conditions allow. 61.Descend to Camp 1. 62.Packing in camp 1, descend to ABC.63.Packing in ABC. 64.Yaks transport equipment, supplies and rubbish to Chinese base. Members walk down. 65.Packing in Chinese base. 66.Drive to Tingri. 67.Drive to Kathmandu. 68.In Kathmandu. Final packing, summit celebration, saying goodbye to new friends. 69.Fly home! * Number corresponds to day in trip

    15. Every year people die try to achieve their dream of climbing Mount Everest • Worst disaster- a freak and sudden storm in May 1996 caused eight people to lose their lives—yet it did not stop others from attempting the climb just weeks later, resulting in four more deaths. The total for the year was fifteen. • By the end of 2010, 219 people have died trying to summit. • In the last ten years, advances in climbing equipment and more experienced guides have resulted in a steep drop in fatality statistics: from 37% in 1990 to 4.4% in 2004.

    16. What happens if you die while climbing Mount Everest? • There are over 200 dead bodies on Mount Everest. • Rescue is extremely dangerous because it would take too long and likely leave the climbing team stranded overnight. • Most of the bodies are in the same exact position they were when they died. They are perfectly preserved in time because of the cold. • Along the route up to the summit climbers will pass all these bodies. There are bodies over 50 years old that look like they were placed there yesterday. • Some of the dead bodies now serve as trail markers for other climbers and have names. This one is called “Green Boots.” • Climbing Mount Everest has become much safer over the past decade thanks to advances in technology and climbing gear. Source:

    17. What does the view from the top look like? • You can’t stay for more than an hour at the top. • Getting down is just as dangerous as the climb up! • Hillary took 3 pictures of Norgay and they stayed about 15 minutes. • Norgay left a traditional Buddhist offering of chocolates and biscuits at the top. • To see a great 360 degree view, right click on: Source:

    18. What is the economic impact of climbing Mount Everest? • Nepal benefits financially from tourism. • There is increased affluence because it provides a reliable source of income for local people. • Today there are new schools, hospitals as well as stores selling western goods. • Some people turn their homes into tea houses, or overnight lodging, for tourists who want an "authentic" Himalayan experience. • Nepalese men from other areas come to work as porters on expeditions, hauling trekking equipment up Everest slopes. • Even the high-altitude Buddhist monasteries draw income from passing tourists. • Sherpas continue to be proud of their traditions and continue to observe Buddhism. New wealth has been used for restoration of temples, building of new shrines, and expansion of monasteries which have all worked in strengthening their cultural ties. Source:

    19. What is the ecological impact of climbing Mount Everest? • Climate Change- Global climate change has affected Everest, causing the surrounding glaciers to retreat (as much as three miles) and cause flooding to Sherpa villages below . • Increased waste- Increased human activity in this area has led to increased waste production and trash disposal is becoming a major problem. • Waste disposal- Items left behind on Everest: food, water bottles, empty oxygen canisters, tents, food, clothes, a crashed helicopter, and even human waste! • Deforestation- The increased need for energy sources for road development, feeding and housing thousands of tourists each year is causing the area forests to be stripped. Source:

    20. What is being done to reduce the ecological impact? Due to the increased tourism to the area, Nepal is struggling to keep up with waste management issues. • Groups must pay a $4,000 deposit to the Nepal government on their equipment – in the hope that they will carry down everything they brought. • In 1976, Everest and the surrounding area were designated as Sagarmatha National Park. In 1979, the area was made a Natural World Heritage Site. Currently, flora and fauna in the park are protected and the collection of firewood is prohibited. • The Himalayan Trust is aimed at long-term solutions to the problems that confront the Sherpas and other Nepalese living in the Everest district of Nepal. Building schools and hospitals, medical clinics , fresh water pipelines and re-establishing forestry have been projects addressed by this trust. • Groups are now pushing for the installation of portable toilets and invest in waste treatment facilities, incinerators and sewer treatment plants for the area.

    21. Eco Everest Expedition's three expeditions in 2008, 2009, and 2010 brought down over 13 tons of garbage, 660 pounds of human waste, and four human bodies for proper burial. In 2011 the Eco Everest Expedition set out on a climb to remove at least five tons of garbage, waste, and refuse from the mountain. Besides cleaning garbage, the Eco Everest Expedition also demonstrated to climbers that Mount Everest can be climbed in a clean, eco-friendly manner and climbers can successfully use alternative energy sources. Instead of fossil fuel they used solar cookers. Source: A group called Eco Everest Expedition has made several climbs up Mount Everest to clean up the area.

    22. “People do not decide to become extraordinary. They decide to accomplish extraordinary things.” ~Sir Edmund Hillary Check out this website for more information with great photos and videos:

    23. References Bellezza, J. V., Kohn, M., Mayhew, B. and McCrohan, D. (2011). The Lonely Planet: Tibet (8th Edition). Singapore: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. Charilla, K. (2001). Everest News for Students. Retrieved from: Coffey, M. (2003). Where the Mountain Casts Its Shadow: The Dark Side of Extreme Adventure. New York: St. Martin’s Press. DeGaris, K. and O’Connell, D. (2003, March 28). How to Climb Mount Everest. Retrieved from: Goldenberg, S. (2011, 24 October), The Mission to Clean Up Mount Everest. Retrieved from: Hamilton, L. (2002). What it Costs to Climb Mount Everest. Retrieved from: Harris, H. (2006, May 25). How Climbing Mount Everest Work. Retrieved from: Klesius, M. (2003, May). Everest’s Greatest Hits. National Geographic. 203, 16-29.

    24. References continued Klesius, M. (2003, May). Altitude and the Death Zone. National Geographic. 203, 30-33. Krakaur, J. (1998). Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mount Everest Disaster. New York: Anchor Books. Luhr, J. F. (2007). Earth: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. Massachusetts General Hospital (2008, December 9). Why Climbers Die On Mount Everest. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from Miller, P. (2003, May). Everest at Fifty. National Geographic. 203, 2-15. Platt, R. (2000). Everest:Reaching the World’s Highest Peak. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. Reid, T. R. (2003), May) The Sherpas. National Geographic. 203, 42-71. Rich, D. (2011). Hiking to the Base of Mount Everest. Retrieved from: Stevens, S. (1993). Tourism, Change and Continuity in the Mount Everest Region. The Geographical Review. 83, 23-28. Thompson, K. (2003, 2 April). Everest Timeline: Eighty Years of Triumph and Tragedy. Retrieved from Venables, S. (2003). To the Top: The Story of Everest. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press.