Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D.

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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D.
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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D.

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  1. Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. • Crusades (Holy Wars)

  2. Fight against Islam • Battle of Tours • Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe • Re-conquering Spain • Saving the Holy Land (Crusades)

  3. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Last 200 years (many different crusades) • Europeans have contact with outside world • emerge from isolationism

  4. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Jerusalem • under Muslim control since 700s • Battle of Tours in 732 • Treaty signed by Charles Martel and Muslims • Christians could pilgrimage to Holy Land

  5. Crusades (Holy Wars) • 1096 Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) askedPope (Urban II) for help fighting Muslims • Muslim Turks invaded Byzantine empire • took control of Holy Land • attacked Christian pilgrims • Pope agrees to help

  6. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Pope calls Christians to fight • “God wills it!” • promised remission of sins • wanted increased power • wanted knights to fight Muslims instead of each other

  7. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Thousands of Europeans respond • knights • hoped to win wealth and land • adventure

  8. Crusades (Holy Wars) • 1st Crusade (1096-1099) • Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in Middle East • only crusade close to achieving goal • long, bloody campaign • Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 • then massacred Muslims & Jews

  9. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Crusader states • Edessa 1098-1144 • Antioch 1098-1268 • Jerusalem 1099-1187 • Tripoli 1100-1289 • Muslims kept attacking

  10. 2nd Crusade Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 3rd Crusade Richard I and Europeans failed to recapture Jerusalem Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims Crusades (Holy Wars)

  11. Crusades (Holy Wars) • 4th Crusade • crusaders raid Constantinople (Byzantine capital) • steal wealth • kill Muslims, Christians, and Jews (Christians fight Christians)

  12. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Later Crusaders • complete failures • military disasters • Muslims took control of last of crusader states • massacred defeated Christians

  13. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences • 1. Languages in Europe altered • now have Islamic words • 2. New products enter Europe • silks and spices • Europeans interested in trade • 3. Center of commerce changed for all of Europe • Northern Italian cities won crusades • Venice, Genoa, Florence became wealthy and controlled trade

  14. Result of Crusades • Europeans get interested in trade with Muslims: Muslims are: • highly advanced in science and technology • maintained knowledge of Eastern Roman Empire • maintained trade with India in luxury goods

  15. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences • 4. System of commerce changed • bills of credit, checking, banking • 5. Nobility of Europe is weakened • power of nobles declined • many died, including kings • manors left with no leaders or power authority • 6. King was great winner • power of king increased

  16. Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences • 7. Tremendous increase in knowledge and interest in geography • Western Europeans learned world was much larger than ever imagined • 8. Pope’s power increased, then weakened • late 1200s, heightened power of pope • weakened when Christian knights were defeated

  17. Reconquest in Spain • Muslims conquered most of Spain in 700s • Christian warriors battled Muslims for 500 years • campaign to drive Muslims out and recover Spain • “Reconquista” or “Reconquest”

  18. Reconquest in Spain • Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 • Their combined forces completed Reconquest of Spain in 1492

  19. Spanish Inquisition • Religious toleration under Muslim rule • Queen Isabella wanted religious unity • ended policy of toleration • The Inquisition • Church court to convert or punish heretics • brutal crusade against Muslims and Jews (those refusing to convert often burned at stake)

  20. Result of Crusades • By 1400s, a desire to trade directly with China and India led Europeans to a newage of exploration.