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Classification/Taxonomy. Chapter 18. Why Classify?. To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms, group them in a logical manner, and study evolutionary relationships. Taxonomy. Defined :

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Why classify
Why Classify?

To study the diversity of life, biologists use a

classification system to name organisms,

group them in a logical manner, and study

evolutionary relationships.



Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.

In other words, naming things.

Why common names don t work
Why common names don’t work

Common names vary among different languages.


Arabic: quttah

Czech: kocka

French: chat

German: katze

Japanese: neko

Russian: kotchka

Spanish: gato

Why common names don t work1
Why common names don’t work

Common names vary among different countries.


United Kingdom – Buzzard refers to a hawk

United States – Buzzard refers to a vulture

Red-tailed Hawk

Honey Buzzard

Turkey Vulture

Why common names don t work2
Why common names don’t work

Many species have several common names.

Sand tiger shark

Sand shark

Gray nurse shark

Why common names don t work3
Why common names don’t work

Same common name used for different species



Mahi mahi

Turciops truncatus

First attempt to classify
First Attempt to Classify

Aristole (Greek Philosopher)

* About 300 BC

* Classified based on method of reproduction

* Used the words like “genera” and “species”

* Grouped animals between those with blood and

those without blood

* He had many errors in his classification system, but it

was used until the 1700s

Carolus linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus

  • (1707 – 1778)

  • Created the system of naming we use today.

  • In taxonomy, a group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category or taxon.

Binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature

  • “Bi” means 2

  • “nomial” means naming

  • Nomenclature means “the system of”


    In Binomial Nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. (genus & species)

Example of binomial nomenclature
Example of Binomial Nomenclature

  • Polar Bear is Ursus maritimus

  • Ursus: genus

    Ursus contains 5 other kinds of bears

  • maritimus: species

    The Latin word, maritimus, refers to the sea.

    Polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea.

Here we go polar bear
Here We Go…Polar Bear

*Do NOT have to write*

Species: maritimus

Genus: Ursus

Family: Ursidae

Order: Carnivora

Class: Mammalia

Phylum: Chordata

Kingdom: Animilia

What do these mean?...lets see

What they mean
What they mean

Species: maritimus (lives in marine environment)

Genus: Ursus (kind of bear)

Family: Ursidae (larger category of bears)

Order: Carnivora (meat-eating animals)

Class: Mammalia (warm-blooded, hair, & milk)

Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)

Kingdom: Animilia (there are 6 kingdoms)

*Do NOT have to write*

How to remember
How to remember:

DaKing Phillip Came Over For Green Salad









Classification taxonomy









Genus Ursus



Rules of the game
Rules of the Game

Uniqueness: Every name has to be unique.

Universality: Zoologists have adopted, by International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a set of rules for naming animals. A single language is to be used on a worldwide basis. All animals are given a generic name (common name) and specific name in Latin &/or Greek (scientific name).

These names are in italics when TYPED

or are underlined when HAND WRITTEN.

Human: Homo sapiens

Lion: Panthera leo

Classification taxonomy

Genus species

If these three species belong to the same genus, they are descended from a common ancestor.

Felis domestica


Domestic Cat


Felis negripes


Black Footed Cat

Felis margarita


Sand cat`

A problem with traditional classification
A Problem with Traditional Classification

  • Traditional classification systems relied on body structure comparisons

    only (not DNA)

  • Due to convergent evolution, organisms that are quite different from each

    other evolve similar body structures.

    Convergent Evolution: Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.

Sugar Glider…

Live in Australia

Look similar, but totally unrelated!

Flying Squirrel…

Live in the US (GA)

Another problem with traditional classification
Another Problem with Traditional Classification

Example: The Crab, The barnacle, & The limpet

  • The barnacle and the limpet have similarly shaped shells & look alike

  • The crab has a very different body form

  • Based on anatomy, the barnacle & limpet could be classified together and the crab in a different group.

Classification taxonomy


This incorrect because crabs and barnacles are actually related

Modern principles of classification
Modern Principles of Classification

  • Modern classification system has its roots in the

    system of Linnaeus

  • Modern classification has been revised to reflect

    Darwinian Principle of common descent

  • Most recently, molecular systematics (DNA) has driven the most recent revisions in classification

Classification taxonomy



Molted Exoskeleton

Even though they do not look a like, crabs & barnacles are actually related


Free swimming Larva

Evolutionary classification systematics
Evolutionary Classification/Systematics

  • Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just physical similarities

    Evolution Classification (Systematics): Is the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history.

Animal systematics
Animal Systematics

  • Phylogeny: Phylogenetic tree (also known as evolutionary tree). Based on the study of characters that vary among species.

  • Character: anything that has a genetic basis and can be measured.


First Used ONLY Morphology

Morphologyis a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

Classification using cladograms
Classification Using Cladograms

Cladogram: A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.

Classification taxonomy



Not in Notes…Follow Along!

Molted Exoskeleton

Using Cladograms, you can see that crabs and barnacles share similar characteristics because they both molt & are segmented


Free swimming Larva

Classification taxonomy



Molted Exoskeleton

You can also see that ALL have a free swimming larva stage


Free swimming Larva

The three domain system
The Three-Domain System

  • In 1990, a new taxonomic level called Domain was introduced and changed how bacteria were classified.

    • Domain Archaea

    • Domain Bacteria

    • Domain Eukarya

  • There are 6 Kingdoms total:

    1. Eubacteria 2. Archaebacteria

    3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plantae 6. Animalia

Both are Bacteria

Everything else (Except viruses)

6 kingdoms
6 Kingdoms







Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

Autotroph or


Autotroph or







Includes Algae

Don’t belong in other euk

No cell wall

No chloroplasts


“Ancient Bacteria”

Release enzymes to digest food

Most common bacteria

Cell walls

& Chloroplasts

Live in very hot places

E. ecoli

Pyrococcus furiosus


H. coccinea

Fern frod

Homo sapiens

Systematics first used morpholog y now also use other methods too
Systematics First Used Morphology…Now also use other methods too!

  • Molecular Evidence- is the analysis of hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

Systematics first used morpholog y now use other methods too
Systematics First Used Morphology…Now use other methods too!

  • Biochemical Evidence – is the analysis of similar chemical makeups of organisms to compare evolutionary relationships.

Systematics first used morpholog y now use other methods too click here for video
Systematics First Used Morphology…Now use other methods too!Click HEREfor video

  • Embryonic Evidence – is the analysis of the early development of embryos an comparing them to other animals.

Other patterns of organization
Other Patterns of Organization

  • Unicellular Level of Organization

    • Protista- one-celled organisms

  • Diploblastic Organization

    Body parts organized into layers derived from two tissue layers

    • Ectoderm – gives rise to epidermis (outer layer)

    • Endoderm – gives rise to gastrodermis , the tissue that lines the gut cavity

      Examples: Jellyfish & Hydra



Other patterns of organization1
Other Patterns of Organization

  • Triploblastic Animals

    • Tissues derived from three embryonic layers

      • Ectoderm

      • Mesoderm – found in middle. Gives rise to supportive, contractile, and blood cells.

      • Endoderm

Other patterns of organization2
Other Patterns of Organization

  • Triploblastic Animals (continued)

    • Organized based on the presence or absence of body cavity

      • Body Cavity – fluid-filled space in which internal organs can be suspended and separated from body wall.

        A true body cavity is known as a coelom.

Advantages of a body cavity
Advantages of a Body Cavity

  • Provide more room for organ development

  • Provide more surface area for diffusion of gases, nutrients, & wastes into & out of organs

  • Provide an area for storage

  • Often act as hydrostatic skeletons (as in earthworm)

  • Provide a vehicle for eliminating wastes & reproductive products from the body

  • Facilitate increased body size

More symmetry terms to know write these down on paper not in notes
More Symmetry Terms to KnowWrite these down on paper!(not in notes)

  • Inferior– Below a point of reference

  • Superior– Above a point of reference

  • Terminal– Middle or center point of reference

Phyla to know
Phyla To Know

Porifera: Sponges

Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Corals

Echinodermata: Sea Urchin, Starfish, Sand Dollars

Mollusca: Snails, Clams, Octopus

Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders

Chordata: Vertebrates