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TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION. QUIZ: Friday 10/15 TEST: 10/27. What is Taxonomy? How is it done?. Taxonomy a branch of biology that deals with classifying and naming organisms. Scientists look at similarities and differences in organisms. Back in the day….

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    2. What is Taxonomy? How is it done? • Taxonomy a branch of biology that deals with classifying and naming organisms • Scientists look at similarities and differences in organisms

    3. Back in the day… • Aristotle (~360 BC) came up with a system of classifying organisms. • ANIMALS and PLANTS • Based on habits • Very inconsistent • Carl Linnaeus (~1735) improved Aristotle’s classification system and his is still used today • Founder of taxonomy

    4. Why Classify??? • For order and organization • Ease of adding newly discovered organisms • Shows relationships between organisms • Beyond language barriers and common names

    5. Cell Type • Prokaryote • Organisms that DO NOT HAVE a membrane bound NUCLEUS • Eukaryote • Organisms that HAVE a membrane bound NUCLEUS

    6. Body Type • Unicellular • Uni- means ONE • Organism made up of ONE CELL • Multicellular • Multi- means MANY • Organism made up of MANY CELLS

    7. Nutrition • Autotrophic • Create their own energy from sun or chemicals • Producers • Heterotrophic • Rely on other organisms for energy • Consumers

    8. Cell Wall • Cell structure that surrounds a cell • Provides support and protection • Can be made up of: chitin, cellulose, peptidoglycan, silica, proteins

    9. Linnaeus’s System of Classification Kingdom King Phylum Phillip Class Came Order Over Family For Gets more specific Genus Good Spaghetti Species


    11. Binomial Nomenclature • Two word system using the genus and species of an organism • Genus is always capitalized…species is always lowercase • Both genus and species are underlined or italicized • EX: Humans • Homo sapiens • Homo sapiens

    12. Ursusarctos(italics) Ursusarctos underlined Always capitalize the first letter of the Genus name!!!

    13. Binomial Nomenclature • Genus - first part of name • Always use a capital letter and underline or italics Ex: Homo - humans Felis - cats, tigers, lions Ursus- bears Canis - dogs, wolves, coyotes

    14. Binomial Nomenclature • Species - second part of the name Always with a lower case letter and underline oritalics. • Ex: sapien - thinking familiaris - dog domesticas- cat lupus - wolves tigris- tiger latran - coyotes

    15. Binomial Nomenclature • Full binomial nomenclature: Genus species Homo sapiens Canisfamiliaris Felisdomesticus Canis lupus

    16. Domains and Kingdoms 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Archaebacteria 3 Domains Protista Bacteria Eubacteria Fungi Eukarya Plantae Animalia

    17. Kingdom Archaebacteria • Cell Type: prokaryote • Cell Wall: not composed of peptidoglycan • Body Type: unicellular • Nutrition: autotrophic vs. heterotrophic • Examples: Ancient bacteria--Extremophiles methanococcus; halophiles

    18. Kingdom Bacteria • Cell Type: prokaryote • Cell Wall: composed of peptidoglycan • Body Type: unicellular • Nutrition: autotrophic & heterotrophic • Examples: Common bacteria E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus

    19. Kingdom Protista • Cell Type: Eukaryotic • Cell Wall: silica, calcium carbonate, proteins • Body Type: unicellular & multicellular • Nutrition: autotrophic & heterotrophic • Examples: Misfits like--paramecium, euglena, amoeba

    20. Kingdom Fungi • Cell Type: eukaryotic • Cell Wall: chitin • Body Type: unicellular & multicellular • Nutrition: heterotrophic (not a plant!) • Examples: yeast, morel, puffball, Rhizopusstolonifer (bread mold)

    21. Kingdom Fungi

    22. Kingdom Plantae • Cell Type: eukaryotic • Cell Wall: composed of cellulose • Body Type: multicellular • Nutrition: autotrophic • Examples: corn; ferns; roses; pine tree

    23. Kingdom Animalia • Cell Type: eukaryotic • Cell Wall: no cell wall • Body Type: multicellular • Nutrition: heterotrophic • Examples: manatee, shark, snakes, worms, coral, hummingbird, insects….

    24. Phylogeny • Scientists group organisms based on their evolutionary connections • A “Family Tree”…

    25. Barnacles, Crabs, and Limpets Limpets • Which ones are most closely related?? Barnacles Crabs

    26. Cladograms Appendages Crustaceans Conical Shells Gastropod Barnacle Crab Barnacle Limpet Limpet Crab Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming larva CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM

    27. Cladograms • A cladogram is a diagram used to show ancestral relationships between organisms • Evolutionary tree of life

    28. Quick LabHow is a cladogram constructed? 1. Identify which organism is least closely related to the others. ANALYZING • Does your cladogram indicate that lizards and humans share a more recent common ancestor when compared to an earthworm? • Where would you insert a frog if you added it to the cladogram? 2. Create your branches based on the differences in characters. 3. What trait separates the least closely related organism from the other animals?

    29. Cladogram Frog Lizard Human Trout Earthworm Amniotic Egg Hair Legs Backbone

    30. Tools for Classifying • Dichotomous Keys