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Classification and Taxonomy. Order, Organization, & Naming of all life on Earth. Classifying Organisms. Taxonomy : the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms. Ways to Classify Organisms. Unicellular vs. multicellular Prokaryote vs. eukaryote Autotroph vs. heterotroph

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classification and taxonomy

Classification and Taxonomy

Order, Organization, & Naming of all life on Earth

classifying organisms
Classifying Organisms
  • Taxonomy: the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
ways to classify organisms
Ways to Classify Organisms
  • Unicellular vs. multicellular
  • Prokaryote vs. eukaryote
  • Autotroph vs. heterotroph
    • Makes its own food vs. having to “get” food
    • Simple vs complex feeding systems.
  • Linnean system and binomial nomenclature (today)
old systems of classification
Old Systems of Classification
  • Aristotle (Greek, 2400 years ago): classified only as plant or animal
a better system
A better system
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
  • “Father of Taxonomy”
  • His work is the basis of classification systems used today
modern classification
Modern Classification
  • Can classify all life into 3 main domains
    • Most general/most inclusive category
    • Bacteria, archaea, eukarya (written in chart)
characteristics of domain bacteria
Characteristics of Domain Bacteria
  • Prokayote
    • Does not have a nucleus or specialized organelles
  • Small
  • Unicellular
  • Have cell wall
  • Example: E. coli
characteristics of domain archaea
Characteristics of Domain Archaea
  • Prokayote
  • Small
  • Unicellular
  • Have cell wall
  • Live in harsh environments
  • Example: Pyrococcusabyssi

Some of the first Archaea were found in the hot springs of Yellowstone Park

characteristics of domain eukarya
Characteristics of Domain Eukarya
  • Eukaryote
    • Have a nucleus and specialized organelles
  • Small or large
  • Uni. or multi.
  • Some have cell walls
  • Ex: protists, fungi, plants, animals
be ready to answer
Be ready to answer!
  • How did Aristotle classify organisms?
  • Who came along and improved Aristotle’s method?
  • Which domain of life has organisms that live in very harsh environments?
  • Which domain are humans contained in?
  • Which 2 domains have prokaryotes?
the 6 kingdoms
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Eubacteria (“true” bacteria)
    • Prokayote
    • Unicellular
    • Includes autotrophs and heterotrophs
the 6 kingdoms1
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria (“ancient” bacteria)
    • Prokayote
    • Unicellular
    • Autotrophs (chemosynthesis), heterotophs
the 6 kingdoms2
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Protista (protists)
    • Eukaryote
    • Majority are unicellular
    • Autotrophs, heterotophs
the 6 kingdoms3
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Fungi
    • Eukaryote
    • Majority are multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
the 6 kingdoms4
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Plantae (plants)
    • Eukaryote
    • Multicellular
    • Autotrophs
the 6 kingdoms5
The 6 kingdoms:
  • Kingdom Animalia (animals)
    • Eukaryote
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
domain and kingdom are still too broad
“Domain” and “kingdom” are still too broad.

We continue to break organisms into more and more specific categories.

Same information, just presented in a different way

classification of humans
Classification of Humans

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Primates

Family: Hominidae

Genus: Homo

Species: Homo sapeins

to remember the order
To remember the order:
  • Domain Dear
  • Kingdom King
  • Phylum Phillip
  • Class came
  • Order over
  • Family for
  • Genus grape
  • Species spaghetti
classifying organisms1
Classifying organisms
  • Taxon: any particular group within a taxonomic system
    • “Taxa” is plural
    • Examples of taxa:
      • Kingdom
      • Phylum
      • Class
      • etc.
be ready to answer1
Be ready to answer!
  • Which kingdom has “true” bacteria?
  • Which kingdom has organisms like Volvox, a protist?
  • Which kingdom has mushrooms?
  • Which kingdom has organisms that are ALL autotrophs?
  • Which kingdom has “ancient” bacteria?
  • Which kingdom has ants?
this organism can be called a
This organism can be called a:
  • Cougar
  • Mexican lion
  • Mountain lion
  • Deer tiger
  • Mountain screamer
  • Puma
  • Florida panther
  • Catamount
  • Panther
  • Silver lion
  • Devil cat
  • Indian devil
  • Sneak cat
  • King cat
  • Mountain devil
  • Red tiger
  • Deercat
  • Fire cat
  • Plain lion
  • Grey lion
  • Caracajou
  • Klandagi
  • Catawampus
  • Quinquajou
  • Long Tail
  • Swamp lion
problem
Problem!

There are at least 50 common names for the cougar. The same issue arises with many other organisms!

why classify with a scientific name
Why classify with a scientific name?
  • Since common names vary, scientific names ensure you’re talking about the correct organism
  • Some names are misleading (“jellyfish”)
scientific naming system
Scientific naming system

Binomial nomenclature- a two-part name system for writing scientific names. Based on Latin.

rules
Rules
  • Genus name written first
    • ALWAYS capitalized
  • Species name is written second
    • NEVER capitalized
    • NEVER by itself
  • Both words are italicized if typed, underlined if handwritten
find the errors
Find the errors!
  • TaxideaTaxus
  • procyonlotor
  • DelphinidaeDelphis
slide35

Sidenote with an example:

  • Cannisvulpesis a fox
    • Writing C. vulpes is acceptable.
    • Writing Cannis v. is not.
    • Writing vulpes (by itself) is BAD…need genus + species.