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Gas Exchange. air > alveoli > blood > hemoglobin in RBC > muscle tissue normal conditions - oxidative metabolism supplies body, matches rate of need increased exercise shows linear increase in O 2 uptake to a point, then plateaus with increased speed VO 2 max . VO 2 max.

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gas exchange
GasExchange
  • air > alveoli > blood > hemoglobin in RBC > muscle tissue
  • normal conditions - oxidative metabolism supplies body, matches rate of need
  • increased exercise shows linear increase in O2 uptake to a point, then plateaus with increased speed
    • VO2max
vo 2 max
VO2max
  • maximal amount of oxygen used by the athlete during maximal exercise to exhaustion
  • determined by increasing workload or speed of treadmill in a stepwise manner
    • Humans 69-85 ml O2/kg/min
    • Thoroughbreds 160 ml O2/kg/min
    • Greyhounds 100 ml O2/kg/min
    • Camel 51 ml O2/kg/min
vo 2 max3
VO2 max
  • can be used as an assessment of fitness (ability for aerobic energy transfer)
  • VO2 max reached at heart rate of approx. 200 bpm
  • horses have higher VO2max per kg BW
    • increased heart size
    • increased hemoglobin concentration
    • increased peripheral capillary bed
    • large skeletal muscle mass has higher density of mitochondria (aerobic metabolism)
      • spleen > increased RBC > increased hemoglobin > increased affinity of O2 and enhances O2 diffusion
carbon dioxide transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
  • dissolved CO2 in plasma
    • 5%
  • carbamino compounds - combined with and amino group
    • 15-20%
  • combined reversibly with H2O
    • 60-80%
    • CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
  • with excessive exercise (100% VO2 max), some CO2 not eliminated; unique to horse
oxygen transportation
Oxygen Transportation
  • small amount dissolved in blood (< 2%)
  • combined with hemoglobin (98 %)
  • 4 O2 molecules per hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin)
  • Hemoglobin
    • each gram of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin binds 1.34 ml O2
    • 15 g Hg = 20.1 ml/100 ml blood
    • 20 g Hg = 26.8 ml/100 ml blood
    • anemia - decreased hemoglobin - O2 content decreased
    • oxygen dissociation curve
hemoglobin dissociation curve
Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
  • Bohr effect (triggered by H+ in blood)
    • right shift of curve due to decreased pH of blood (acidic)
      • hemoglobin unloads O2 more readily to muscle
      • higher pH in lung, hemoglobin loads up on O2
      • muscle pH decreases with exercise
    • increases in arterial PCO2 in blood unloads more O2
    • temperature
      • right shift with increases blood temperature
      • hemoglobin unloads more O2 in heated active muscle
      • not much effect at low intensity work level
locomotor respiratory coupling
Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling
  • effect of natural anatomical driving forces
  • walk - no effect
  • trot and pace
    • ratio 1:, 1:3 or 2:3
  • canter and gallop
    • 1:1
    • compression of chest from driving force of weight on front limbs
    • pressure of diaphragm
      • visceral piston (30% of BW)
    • change in axis of body
response to exercise
Response to Exercise
  • respiration rate and tidal volume increase to bodies need
  • regulated by chemoreceptors in response to O2, CO2 and pH of arteries
  • locomotion mechanics override chemoreceptors at canter and gallop
recovery following exercise
Recovery Following Exercise
  • affected by work intensity, fitness and climate
  • rapid decrease in rate, repay “ O2 debt ”
    • deep breaths to 60-100 bpm
  • re-synthesis of phosphocreatine in exercised muscle
  • catabolism and anabolism of blood lactate
  • restore hormonal reserves
  • lower body temperature
    • regulated by airway and skin temperature
  • analysis - rate & depth, HR, rectal temperature, and physical state