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Unit 1: A Gathering of voices. Literature of Early America Beginnings to 1750. John Winthrop Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

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unit 1 a gathering of voices

Unit 1:A Gathering of voices

Literature of Early America

Beginnings to 1750

john winthrop governor of the massachusetts bay colony
John WinthropGovernor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • “We shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world.”

Because it’s more than just studying about major American writers.

  • It’s more than just reading about major literary movements that shaped this nation.
  • It’s even more than just learning how history and cultural events shaped the writers of the past.
  • It’s about….

Learning how you feel, how you react, and how you respond to the literary, historical, and cultural movements of yesterday….

  • It’s about learning how take those events from yesterday and using them to become better men and women…
  • So that one day you can be the writers, leaders, and great thinkers that our children read, analyze, and write about tomorrow.
questions for consideration
Questions for Consideration
  • Who is an American?
  • What is American literature?
  • When does “American” literature begin?
  • Who is great and who is not so great?
  • What forces shaped American writers?
what is an american
What is an American?
  • Are Christopher Columbus and John Smith Americans?
  • Are early Native American tales American literature?
  • Were the Puritans Americans?
  • Was Thomas Paine an American writer?
first explorers and settlers
First Explorers and Settlers
  • Columbus, Smith, early missionaries and early settlers thought of themselves as Europeans
  • They thought, wrote, acted, and worked as and for Europeans
  • Columbus wrote as propaganda, to gain more funding and political backing for his trips
  • Smith also wrote for propaganda purposes: to gain backing and settlers
the first americans
The First Americans
  • When Chris Columbus reached North America in 1492, the continent was already populated by several Native American tribes.
  • Though unknown when the first Americans came to what is now the United States, Native Americans have been here 30x longer than their European counterparts
  • What were they doing all that time? No one really knows. What we do know is that they treated the Europeans as friends.
pilgrims and puritans farmers and religious reformers
Pilgrims and Puritans – Farmers and Religious Reformers

Pg. 7-8

  • Small group of Europeans sailed on the Mayflower in 1620.
  • Religious reformers known as Puritans
    • Became critical of the Church of England
    • Instead of “purifying” within, they chose to withdraw
    • Established settlement in Plymouth Massachusetts
    • Believed human beings exist for glory of God and Predestination
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony founded by religious reformers – still apart of Church of England
pilgrims and puritans farmers and religious reformers1
Pilgrims and Puritans – Farmers and Religious Reformers
  • The Southern Planters
    • Southern Colonies differed from New England colonies
    • Climate, crops, social organization, and religion
    • Prosperous costal cities grew up in the South
    • Beyond the cities lay large plantations
    • Plantation: a large scale agricultural enterprise and center of commerce
  • 1st Black Slaves were brought to Virginia in 1619
    • A year before Plymouth Rock
    • By 1750, Puritanism was out and the plantation system was a way of life.
literature of the period
Literature of the Period

An odd melting pot

the melting pot pg 9 13
The Melting Potpg. 9-13
  • Native American Tradition
    • Viewed mainly as folklore
    • 95% oral – no fixed versions exist
  • Famous orators
    • Logan and Red Jacket
  • Explorer’s Accounts
    • Christ Columbus backed by Queen Isabella set sell in 1492
    • Wrote his experience in his Journal of the First Voyage to America
  • Southern Writers
    • John Smith
      • Wrote The General History of Virginia
    • John Byrd
      • The History of the Dividing LIne
  • The Puritans
    • Writing dominated Puritan’s life
    • Consisted of theological studies, hymns, and histories
    • Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor
names and terms to know pg 3
Names and Terms to Knowpg. 3
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Anne Bradstreet
  • Native Americans
  • The Great Awakening
  • Edward Taylor
  • Puritans and Pilgrims
  • Explorers’ Accounts
  • John Smith
important dates to remember p 4 5
Important Dates to Rememberp. 4-5
  • 1492
    • Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas
  • 1565
    • 1st permanent settlement in U.S. established in Florida by Pedro Menendez
  • 1586
    • English Colony at Roanoke Island disappears; known as the Lost Colony
  • 1590
    • Iroquois Confederacy established to stop warfare among the Five Nations
important dates to remember pg 4 5
Important Dates to Remember….Pg. 4-5
  • 1607
    • 1st permanent English settlement at Jamestown, Virginia
  • 1619
    • 1st Black Slaves brought to Virginia
  • 1636
    • Harvard College founded in Massachusetts
  • 1639
    • First printing press in English-speaking N. America arrives in Massachusetts
  • 1692
    • Salem witchcraft trials result in execution of 20 people
  • 1741
    • Great Awakening, a series of religious revivals begins to sweep the colonies
are you still with me
Are you still with me?
  • Name 3 key developments in colonial life?
    • Founding of Harvard University
    • First permanent English settlement
    • First printing press
  • What was the cause of the of executions in 1692
    • People were convicted of witchcraft
susan power native american writer and poet
Susan Power – Native American Writer and Poet

Born in Chicago, Susan Power was greatly influenced by parents representing two distinct cultures. Her mother: Native American. Her father: A descendent of the New Hampshire governor of the Civil War.

what we ll be reading
What we’ll be reading

The Earth on Turtle’s Back - Onondaga

When Grizzlies Walked Upright - Modoc

from The Navajo Origin Legend – Navajo

from The Iroquois Constitution - Iroquois

Museum Indians – Susan Powers

A Journey Through Texas

about early native american literature
About: Early Native American Literature
  • Background
    • There were more than 2000 independent tribes of about one million natives, living here for about 2000 years already.
    • They spoke 500 different languages from 50 different language groups. But, no Indian tribes had a written language until Sequoyah invented a syllabary for the Cherokees in 1821.
    • Different tribes had different literary tastes. The Sious preferred war tales; the Ojibwas preferred stories about sex; and the Menominis liked tales of the supernatural.
styles of native american writings
Styles of Native American Writings

The Oral Tradition Links the Past with the Present

the art of storytelling how native american retold history
The Art of Storytelling….How Native American retold History
  • Through Song
    • Dakota Indians at a chief’s funeral would sing the life and accomplishments at the chief’s funeral
  • Sacred Symbols on Tanned Hides
    • Literary religious scriptures were placed on tanned hides or stone tablets to ensure customs and religious traditions
  • Winter Count
    • Indian version of a history book
    • Tanned buffalo hide with symbols, one picture for each year to represent the most significant event during that year
  • Oral Tradition
    • Earliest form of American Literature
native americans two literary traditions 1 culture
Native Americans: Two Literary Traditions – 1 Culture

The Oral Tradition

The Written Tradition

  • Begins earlier in time
  • Requires language but not a system of writing
  • Based on memory
  • Includes folklore, proverbs, and chants
  • Uses strong rhythms and repetition to help memory
  • Orator can vary presentation in response to audience
  • Begins later in time
  • Requires language and system of writing
  • Based on texts that can be written, read, & copied
  • Includes novels, short stories, history books
  • No variation
  • Materials fixed in a single version
literary analysis term origin myths
Literary Analysis Term: Origin Myths
  • Origin myths
    • Tradition Stories that recount the origins of earthly life.
    • Passed down from generation to generation,
    • Often explain phenomena:
      • The beginning of human life,
      • The customs and religious rites of a people
      • The creation of natural landmarks
      • Events beyond a people’s control
reading strategy recognize cultural details
Reading StrategyRecognize Cultural Details
  • Literature reflects the culture that produces it.
  • When we read the three Native American myths there are several cultural details that indicate how the Native Americans lived as well as what they valued.
  • When you read, you need to begin to pay attention to cultural details:
    • References to objects, animals, or practices that signal how people live, think, or worship
    • You do this to gain insight into their culture