Voices of Poor. When one is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has no food, so there is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress in her family. --- A poor woman in Uganda
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When one is poor, she has no say in public, she feels inferior. She has no food, so there is famine in her house; no clothing, and no progress in her family. --- A poor woman in Uganda
For a poor person everything is terrible – illness, humiliation, shame. No one needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of.
--- A blind woman in Moldova
We have to line up for hours before it is our turn to draw water.
--- A woman in Malawi
Poverty is …. low salaries and lack of jobs. And it’s also not having medicine, food, and clothes. --- A poor man in Brazil
Development is the process of structural transformation
No. of Countries
Per-capita Income ($)
``Economic growth cannot be sensibly treated as an end in itself. Development has to be more concerned with enhancing the lives we lead and the freedoms we enjoy.” Dr. A. K. Sen
Development is the process of increasing capabilities of human beings.
2. Empowerment and agency: enabling people and groups to act – to drive valuable outcomes. This requires process freedom.
3. Justice: expanding equity, sustaining outcomes over time and respecting human rights and other goals of society.
2. Process Freedom: People should have means and opportunities to shape their own destiny. They should be empowered to bring about change in their own lives, in their communities, or on a wider scale. Political freedom – civil rights and democracy are vital to achieve this goal. The governments must be accountable to the people.
3. Justice: Equity is fundamental to human development. A highly unequal distribution of income, resources, and opportunities: political, social, and economic undercuts opportunities and process freedoms.
HDI = 1/3(Life Expectancy)+1/3(Education)+1/3(Per-Capita Income)
Low HD Countries < 0.5 .5 < Medium HD Countries < .8
.8 < High HD Countries < .9 Very High HD Countries >.9
In light of these criticisms, starting 2010 the UNDP has changed the methodology to calculate HDI. We will study the new methodology in the next lecture.
The progress in achieving MDGs has been uneven. The main problems are: