What Is Training and Development?. Training: An organization’s planned effort to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies. “A method of enhancing human performance.” -Silberman Development:
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An organization’s planned effort to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.
“A method of enhancing human performance.” -Silberman
Formal education, job experiences, relationships and assessments of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
Teach employees skills needed for current jobs.
Low priority = low budget.
U.S. business training dollars:
1995: $51 billion (Bureau of Labor Statistics).
2006: $109 billion (American Society for Training and Development).
Training becomes a competitive advantage when:
It is linked to business strategy and organization goals.
It focuses on the organization’s future.
Employees are trained in the knowledge, skills and abilities required to achieve that future.
It moves from basic skills to learning, creating and sharing knowledge.
Improves performance toward goals.
Focuses on what is needed and when it is needed.
Formal training enhanced by informal learning.
Learning supported by the organization.
Metrics that Show
Value of Training
Those costs that remain the same no matter how many individuals participate in the training.
Expenses that will vary depending on the number of participants in the training program.
Lunch for participants.
All of the expenses involved in putting together the training program:
Course development or purchase.
Costs of needs assessment.
Evaluation of training.
Less obvious expenses, not directly related to the training:
Administrative and clerical salaries.
Employee fringe benefits (25 percent of salary).
1. Needs assessment and analysis.
2. Training program design.
3. Training program development.
4. Implementation and delivery of training.
5. Training evaluation.
Training appropriate for ROI analysis:
Clearly identified outcomes.
Not one-time events.
Broad-based and highly visible in the organization.
Training effects can be isolated.
Aids in decision-making process.
Consistent analysis across programs.
Information difficult to obtain.
Benefit-Cost Ratio = ----------------------------
Measuring training benefits:
Benefits must consider training objectives.
Literature summaries of benefits of specific training.
Assessment of pilot training programs.
Observations of successful trainees.
Estimates from trainees and managers.
The process used to determine if training is necessary.
This is the first step in the instructional design model.
Goals of needs assessment:
Determine whether a training need exists.
Identify who it exists for.
Identify what tasks need to be taught.
Needs analysis (aka, gap analysis):
Analysis of the data collected during the needs assessment.
A needs analysis focuses on the differences between the way work should be done and the way work is done.
Expected performance – What is the ideal? What should be happening?
Actual performance – What is actually happening now?
1. Gather data to identify needs.
2. Determine needs that can be met by training intervention.
3. Propose solutions.
4. Calculate potential cost of training interventions.
5. Choose the training.
6. Implement the training.
Do we need a needs assessment?
Training may be the wrong solution.
We may conduct the wrong training.
Unnecessary money may be spent on training.
If so, what’s the triggering event?
Lack of basic skills.
Change in performance standards.
Questionnaires and surveys.
Key employee consultation.
Company reports and print media analysis.
Is training appropriate?
Does training support the organization’s strategic direction?
Does employee performance indicate a need for training?
Which employees need training?
Task analysis or competency model:
What work activities are required to complete a task?
What knowledge, skills and abilities are necessary to successfully perform the task?
Goal: A concise statement of the purpose or intent of the training.
Who is the training for?
What is the training about?
Why is the training being conducted?
Objective: What participants will be able to do after the training.
Provides a focus for training design.
Tells participants what they should know at the end of the program.
Assists in knowledge and skills transfer.
Establishes parameters for evaluation.
A training objective has three components:
Performance outcomes: A statement about what the employee is expected to do. This is a task or an observable action.
Criterion: A statement about the level of performance that is acceptable.
Conditions of performance: A statement about the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform.
Program design is the organization and coordination of training.
For learning to occur, training programs require:
Opportunities for practice.
Effective program design includes:
Entry skills and behaviors.
Assessment of learning objectives.
Detailed lesson plan.
Structure and sequence of training.
To learn effectively, what do employees need?
To know why they should learn.
Meaningful training content.
Opportunities to practice.
To commit training content to memory.
Opportunity for observation, experience and interaction with others.
Training to be properly coordinated and arranged.
Group building methods.
Time and location
Company meeting room or off-site?
Time of day/multiple days.
Who will conduct the training program?
Subject matter expert.
Other logistics (“butts, bagels, books”)
Materials and handouts
Training effectiveness: Benefits to the organization and trainees.
Develop measurable outcomes and plan for transfer of training.
Develop outcome measures.
Choose an evaluation strategy.
Plan and execute the evaluation.
Formative evaluation: Evaluation that takes place during training
May result in content change.
May involve pilot test.
May adjust to meet needs of the trainees.
Summative evaluation: Evaluation conducted at the end of training.
Used to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of the training program.
Used to measure return on investment.