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The Jacksonian Presidency
Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? “King”Andrew? OR
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” • Intense distrust of Eastern“establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. • His heart & soul was with the“plain folk.” • Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Spoils System • “Give common people a chance to participate in Gov.” • “Unless regular turnover of personnel, officeholders would become inefficient and corrupt” • Gave jobs to many friends • Kitchen Cabinet • Fired Adams workers
Jackson's Native-American Policy
The Removal of Natives • “Civilized Tribes” living in valuable land in GA, NC, SC, AL, MS, and TN • Indian Removal Act – law which provided funds for Fed. Gov. to negotiate with Natives to move west • 1830 – pressured Choctaw to move from MS • 1831 – ordered US troops to forcibly remove Sauk and Fox from IL and MO • 1832 – forced Chicasaw to leave AL & MS
Federal Court Cases Cherokee’s brought GA to court, John Marshal refused to hear the case Samuel Austin Worcester stood up for Indians in court since he was a citizen Worcester vs. Georgia (1832) – court ruled Cherokees are a distinct nation that GA can not regulate by law and land can not be invaded Jackson refused to obey it “John Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it.”
The Trail of Tears Some Cherokees began to promote relocation US Fed agents heard of this group, had them sign “Treaty of New Echota” Last 8 million acres of Cherokee land given to US fed gov. in exchange for $5 mil and land in OK Later, Pres. Van Buren forced the removal of the remaining Cherokees Oct. 1838 – Cherokees sent on 800 mile trip on foot, many died on the way, had $ and livestock stolen, and destination land was far inferior to their previous land.
The Tariff and Nullification Issues
South hurt by tariffs less British goods being bought by US less cotton sold to Britain also forced to buy expensive northern goods South felt “North getting rich at Southern expense.” Calhoun, normally a nationalist, spoke up for his home hurting state 1828 “Tariff of Abominations”
The Webster-Hayne Debate Sen. Daniel Webster[MA] Sen. Robert Hayne[SC]
1830 Webster:Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson:Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun:The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.
1832 – Congress passed another tariff SC said “unauthorized by Constitution” and threatened to secede from the Union if customs officials tried to collect duties Jackson declared SC act treasonous and threatened to hang Calhoun. Jackson Passed FORCE BILL Allowed fed gov. to use the army and navy against SC if state authorities resisted. Henry Clay’s compromise – gradually lower tariff over 10 years. Temporarily solved problem. South Carolina Rebels
1832 Election Results Main Issue?
Renewing the Charter of the 1st National Bank
Jackson’s hatred for the National Bank: had lost $ due to speculation early in his life so skeptical of banks Felt conservative credit policies caused Panic of 1819 Symbolized Eastern wealth and power Felt it cared for wealthy, not for common man Threatened American Democracy b/c its influence on the economy Could bribe officials or buy elections to control the gov. Andrew Jackson & the National Bank
Promoted to public that the bank served to “make the rich richer and the potent more powerful.” Some basis for hatred: Fed. Taxes deposited in BUS rather than state or local banks gave BUS advantage over other banks BUS stockholders earned interest on Fed. Tax deposits, not taxpayers Bank President gave cheaper loans to Congressman than average citizen Andrew Jackson & the National Bank
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! • 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank of the United States. • HUGE EXPANSION OF PRESIDENCY
1832 – Jackson pressures Sec. of Treasury to withdraw gov. deposits from the bank and put them in state banks “pet banks” Sec. of Treasury refused, Jackson fired him, replaced with new one To save bank, Biddle called in repayment of loans this hurt everyone, and he lost support Jackson kills the BUS
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! • 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd National Bank of the United States. • HUGE EXPANSION OF PRESIDENCY • PET BANKS • 1836 the charter expired. • 1841 the bank went bankrupt!
The Specie Circular (1836) • “wildcat banks” – printed bank notes wildly – made currency worthless • Declared - Only could buy future federal land only with gold or silver people rushed to Banks to trade in • Banks stopped accepting paper currency = PANIC of 1837
Results of the Specie Circular • Banknotes loose their value. • Land sales plummeted. • Credit not available. • Businesses began to fail. • Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837!
Jackson’s use of the Veto • Vetoed more bills than all the previous presidents put together (12x!) • First to use the pocket veto • a delaying tactic, President does not sign a bill w/in 10 days of the end of the Congressional term, preventing it from becoming law.
The 1836 Election Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook”[O. K.]
Many, even fellow democrats, felt he acted more like a king than President. Dubbed “King Andrew the first.” Creation of WHIG PARTY after group in Britain who tried to limit royal power. King Andrew
Praising Andrew Jackson for his destroying the Second Bank of the United States with his "Removal Notice" (removal of federal deposits). Nicolas Biddle portrayed as The Devil, along with several speculators and hirelings, flee as the bank collapses while Jackson's supporters cheer.