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Relative Clauses. Frases Relativas (Versión inglés/español). ¿Qué son las frases relativas?. Son aquellas frases relativas a o relacionadas con algo o alguien, al cual o al que estas frases van subordinadas mediante un pronombre relativo: que, quien, el cual, cuyo, etc. ¿Quién es María?
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Relative Clauses Frases Relativas (Versión inglés/español)
¿Qué son las frases relativas? • Son aquellas frases relativas a o relacionadas con algo o alguien, al cual o al que estas frases van subordinadas mediante un pronombre relativo: que, quien, el cual, cuyo, etc. • ¿Quién es María? • María es la chica que vino ayer (Frase relativa) “…que vino ayer” o “…la cual vino ayer” tiene relación o dice algo de la chica para identificarla. Ya sabemos que María no es otra si no la chica que vino ayer.
Relativeclauses María isthegirlwhocameyesterday or María isthegirlthatcameyesterday Thisisthehousewhich I boughtlastweek or Thisisthehousethat I boughtlastweek
Relativeclauses Twotypes of Relativeclauses: • Defining:closelyconnectedwiththeantecedent Thisisnotsomethingthatwoulddisturb me • Non-defining:Nouns which are already definite. They add something to the noun by given more information about it.They are not essential and can be omitted. The non-restrictive relative clauses are always between commas It’sallbasedonviolence, which I hate
Frases Relativas (explicación en español) Dos tipos de frases relativas: • DefiningorRestrictive(frases especificativas en español): Aquellas frases estrechamente conectadas con su antecedente. Antecedente: nombre con el que la frase relativa está relacionado (puede ser una persona o una cosa) La chica que vino ayer es María La mesa que pintaste era la mía • Non- definingor Non-restrictive(frases explicativas en español): Son aquellas frases que normalmente dicen algo de la persona o cosa con las que van relacionadas pero no son importantes y por lo tanto se pueden omitir sin que la frase principal pierda sentido. Usualmente van entre comas. Juan, que usa muletas, se ha vuelto a caer
DefiningclausesRelativePronouns PERSONAL ANTECEDENT According to the function in the sentences we have: (según la función que desempeñen dentro de la frase) subject : WHO object : WHO/WHOM genitive: WHOSE (personal/non-personal antecedent) (cuyo/a) (they can be changed by THAT except WHOSE) (se puedencambiarporTHATexceptoWHOSE) SUBJECT This is the man who came yesterday (formal) that (Informal) OBJECT This is the man whom you should know (formal) who (formal) that (Informal) GENITIVE This is the man whose wife works with you
DefiningclausesRelativePronouns SUBJECT There's still one thing which is not explained that OBJECT The house which you bought was my family’s that NON-PERSONAL ANTECEDENT: subject / object : WHICH (it can be substituted by THAT) genitive: WHOSE
ContactClauses(omisión del pronombre). We leave out the relative pronoun (who/which/that) if it is not the subject in the sentence (podemosomitir el pronombrecuandohace la función de objeto) This is the man whom you should know who that _____(No pronoun)_____ (Informal) This is the man you should know (informal) The house which you bought was my family’s that ____no pronoun____ The house you bought was my family’s
Defining clauses using preposition Las preposiciones pueden ser usadas delante o detrás de los pronombres relativos. Si escribimos la preposición delante del relativo sólo podemos usar WHOM. Pero las preposiciones se pueden escribir detrás de su verbo, entonces podemos usar otros pronombres relativos. towhom you spoke. This is the man whom you spoke to. who youspoketo that you spoke to you spoke to muy formal formal informal
Defining clauses using preposition Las preposiciones pueden ser usadas delante o detrás de los pronombres relativos. Si escribimos la preposición delante del relativo sólo podemos usar WHICH (cuando el antecedente no es persona). Pero las preposiciones se pueden escribir detrás de su verbo. Es entonces cuando podemos usar otros pronombres relativos. forwhich I was looking. This is the house which I was looking for. which I was looking for that I was looking for I was looking for muy formal formal informal
ACTIVITIES (defining clauses) Join the sentences by means of a relative pronoun (Write all the possible options) • Thisisthebank. Itwasrobbedyesterday. • A boywas in thebank at that time. Hissisteris in my class • Themanhadtwopistols. He robbedthebank • He wore a mask. Itmadehim look like Mickey Mouse. • He camewith a friend. He waitedoutside in the car. • Thewomanwasyoung. Shegavehimthemoney • The bag wasyellow. Itcontainedthemoney • Thepeoplewereveryfrightened. Theywere in thebank • A mandidnotknowwhatto do. Hismobilewasringing • A womantriedtocalmherdaughter. Shewascrying • The car wasorange. Thebankrobbersescaped in that car • Therobberbigdidn't drive. Hismaskwasobviouslytoo • Themanwasnervous. He drovethe car • He didn'twait at thetrafficlights. Theywere red. • A policeofficerstopped and arrestedthem. His car wasparked at thenextcorner
Non- definingRelativepronouns Personal Antecedent Tom, who I haven’t seen for ages, is coming next week Subject: WHO Object: WHOM / WHO Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”)
Non- definingRelativepronouns "It's all based on violence,which I hate" Non- Personal Antecedent Subject: WHICH Object: WHICH Genitive: WHOSE (They cannot be substituted by “that”)
Activities (Non- defining clauses) Combine the sentences using relative clauses. Note that all relative clauses are non-defining. • Samuel Johnson was the son of a bookseller. Samuel Johnson was born in 1709.Samuel Johnson • In 1728, he went to Oxford. He studied at Pembroke College in Oxford.In 1728, he went • Johnson had to leave Oxford without a degree. He was too poor to pay the fees.Johnson • In 1737, Johnson moved to London. There he wrote poetry, essays and biographies.In 1737, Johnson • In 1746, Johnson started to write his dictionary. It took him nine years to complete.In 1746, Johnson started • His home at that time was in 17 Gough Square in London. It is a museum now.17 Gough Square in London • In this house, his wife died in 1752. Her name was Elizabeth Porter.In this house his wife • In 1755, the work was published. It was called A Dictionary of the English Language.In 1755, the work • Samuel Johnson died in 1784. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.Samuel Johnson
Activities - Relative adverbs Choose the correct relative adverb. • This is the station. Emily met James here • July and August are the months. Most people go on holiday these in these months • Do you know the reason? So many people in the world learn English for this reason • This is the church. Sue and Peter got married here • Edinburgh is the town. Alexander Graham Bell was born in this town • 25 December is the day. Children in Great Britain get their Christmas presents on this day. • A famine was the reason. So many Irish people emigrated to the USA in the 19th century. • A greengrocer's is a shop. You can buy vegetables in this shop • The day was very nice. I arrived this day • A horror film was the reason. I couldn't sleep last night.
MORE ACTIVITIES (Definingor Non-defining) JOIN BY MEANS OF A RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Write all the options) • This man is my uncle. He came yesterday. • That is the boy. His father made him study for two hours. • The book is very interesting. You bought it yesterday. • I want to know it. My friends told you. • She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp. • I am looking after some children. They are very spoilt. • The bed has no mattress. I slept on this bed. • Romeo and Juliet were two lovers. Their parents hated each other. • There wasn't any directory in the telephone box. I was phoning from this box. • I was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed. • This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory. • I met Mary. She asked me to give you this. • I met Mary, ............................. • Tom,....... was driving all day, was tired and wanted to stop. • I was waiting for a man. He didn't turn up. • The firm is sending me to New York. I work for this firm.