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Understanding Design Body Types
Learning Targets • List appropriate clothing choices for different body shapes and sizes.
Shape & Size • Keep body height, shape, and size in mind when choosing clothing that emphasizes your best features. • Frame • Size Ratios • Geometric Shape
Frame • The skeletal structure of the bones. • Small • Medium • Large • Can use wrist size to determine frame size.
Size Ratio • The waist divides the upper and lower portions of the body. • Two people of equal height may not have the same size ratio between the upper and lower portions of the body. • Long upper body and short legs vs. short upper body and long legs • Various arm lengths
Geometric Shape • Body shape can be thought of as triangular, rectangular, hour-glass, etc.
Understanding Design Elements of Design
Learning Targets • Define the elements of design. • Demonstrate the use of design elements in choosing and creating fashions.
The Elements of Design • Line • Shape • Space • Texture • Pattern
Line • Defined: a series of points connected to form a narrow path. • Straight, Curved, or Zig-Zag • 3 directions • Vertical, Horizontal, or Diagonal • Used for different effects • Line can emphasize or minimize portions of a person’s body. • The eye naturally finds the dominant line in a garment • Direction, thickness of the lines, and the amount of space between the lines create different illusions
Using Various Lines • Straight • Formal, crisp, seen in classic or conservative designs • Business suits have clean, straight lines • Seen in striped and plaid patterns • Curved • Give a feeling of movement • Used to create a casual image • Adds softness and roundness to a garment • Found in necklines, lapels, ruffles, and scalloped edges • Zigzag • Eye must change direction to follow zigzag lines • Gives a feeling of excitement or drama • Seen on sweaters or on a garment’s trim
Lines and Illusions • Vertical Lines • Lead the eye up and down giving the illusion of more height and less width • Can be used to create a taller, thinner look • Give a feeling of strength, dignity, and formality
Lines and Illusions • Horizontal Lines • Moves the eye from side-to-side • Gives the illusion of width rather than height • Two-piece outfits and contrasting belts divide body length with horizontal lines • Create a feeling of stability and restfulness
Lines and Illusions • Diagonal Lines • Add movement and excitement to clothing • Effect depends on the slant of the line • Zigzag diagonal lines create the most excitement
Shape • Defined: the outline that forms when one or more lines come together to enclose an area. • Also known as a silhouette • 4 basic garment shapes • Natural • Tubular • Bell • Full
Natural Shape • Follows your body’s outline • Fit close to the body and emphasize the natural waistline • Worn most easily on average body sizes
Tubular Shape • Rectangular with vertical emphasis • Undefined waistline • Adds height and thinness to the body • Ex: t-shirt dress, straight-leg pants, and tailored business suits
Bell Shape • Moves outward from the body in a triangular shape • Can add or subtract width depending on where the top and the bottom of the bell hit • Ex: A-line skirts & dresses and flared pants & jackets
Full Shape • Horizontal and curved lines • Make the body look larger • Ex: gathered skirts & dresses, full sleeves, and pants with wide legs
Space • Defined: the area inside the shape. • Internal lines, either structural or decorative, that divide the space on a garment • Seams provide inner spaces • Decorative stitching and trims also divide space • Ex: lace down the front of a blouse
Texture • Defined: the surface characteristics that determine the look and feel of an object. • Texture results from fiber, yarn, construction, and finish used. • Determines how a fabric moves when worn and can affect the overall way a garment looks on the body. • Soft or crisp, smooth or nubby, dull or shiny.
Pattern • Stripes, plaids, geometrics, florals, scenics, borders, etc. • Large or small • Even or uneven • Light or dark • Spaced or clustered • Muted or bold • Small pattern decrease in apparent size while large pattern increases it • Widely spaced designs can make you seem larger as it draws the eye across the distances from one part of the pattern to the other
Understanding Design Principles of Design
Learning Targets • Define the principles of design. • Demonstrate the use of the principles of design in choosing and creating fashions.
Principles of Design • Proportion • Balance • Emphasis • Rhythm • Harmony
Proportion • Defined: how separate parts of a garment relate to each other and to the whole in size. • Parts with somewhat unequal sizes look best together. • Clothing looks best when it’s in proportion to your own size • Small-framed person might avoid large, overpowering details such as collars & pockets • Large-framed person might avoid tiny details
Proportion 1 1 1 3
Balance • Defined: when the spaces on both sides of a central line, real or imagined, appear equal. • A balanced design gives a feeling of stability. • Can be achieved in different ways • Symmetrical • Asymmetrical
Symmetrical Balance • When the spaces on each side of a garment look just the same. • Gives a formal or tailored look. • Ex: a shirt with two identical sides divided but a center front closing. • Ex: a skirt with a center front seam that divides two similar sides.
Asymmetrical Balance • Don’t look the same on each side of the real or imagined central line. • Add interest or a sense of excitement • Has an informal look • Often more difficult and costly to make • Ex: a wrap skirt • Ex: A colorful pocket on one side and two vertical stripes on the other
Emphasis • Defined: the part of the design that draws attention. • The focal point of the design • The part of the outfit that catches your eye first • Can be accomplished with color, line, texture, design details, trims, and accessories • Ex: a colorful belt emphasizes the waistline • Ex: a contrasting color draws attention toward the face
Rhythm • Defined: carries the eye through a regular pattern produced by design elements. • Repetition • Radiation • Gradation • Good rhythm is apparent when the lines of an outfit work well together. • Ex: when stripes and plaids don’t match at seam lines it breaks rhythm
Repetition • Defined: a pattern repeats itself. • Ex: rows of stripes, polka dots, etc.
Small to Large Thin to Thick Light to Dark Gradation • Defined: A gradual change in pattern. • Ex: change of size or color.
Radiation • Defined: Lines or patterns flow from a central location.
Harmony • Defined: when all parts of a design blend well together. • The elements relate in a unified way. • Each part looks like it belongs and the result is eye-catching.