Organic Compounds. I. Carbon Compounds. Carbon is a unique element. 1. Forms long chained and ringed compounds. 2. Very strong bonds. 3. Low chemical reactivity compared to other non-metals. 4. Enormous quantity of diverse and stable compounds. Covalent bonds.
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I. Carbon Compounds • Carbon is a unique element. 1. Forms long chained and ringed compounds. 2. Very strong bonds. 3. Low chemical reactivity compared to other non-metals. 4. Enormous quantity of diverse and stable compounds.
Covalent bonds • Carbon almost always forms covalent bonds. 1. Most 2nd Period bonded elements are very weak, but carbon’s bonds aren’t. Ex: HO-OH is so weak that the bonds break at room temp.
Reactivity • Carbon cmpds don’t react easily. 1. Butane, C4H10, is stable and only ignites when a spark hits it. But Tetrasilane, Si4H10, catches fire spontaneously.
Bond angles D. Carbon cmpds form four bonds that point to the corners of a tetrahedron that equals 109 degrees.
Allotropes • Carbon allotropes are substances that are made of pure carbon atoms. 1. Diamonds are considered a covalent network solid and have a lattice structure with 109.5 angles throughout. 2. The C atoms in graphite are bonded in a hexagonal pattern and lie in planes (sheets).
II. Organic Compounds • Organic compounds are most of the compounds that are made with C. 1. Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids (fats) and plastics. 2. 12,000,000 organic compounds are known.
Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons are those that consist only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Hydrocarbons 1. Three categories: a. Alkanes-only have single bonds b. Alkenes-have at least one double bond between two carbons. (reactive) c. Alkynes-have at least one triple bond (most reactive)
Isomers C. Isomers are compounds with the same number and types of atoms but differing in their geometric arrangements. Ex: Butane & Methylpropane
Carbon Rings D. 6 carbons commonly form rings. • Aromatic compounds are those with 6 carbons with an alternating double bond and single bond.
Carbon Rings 2. Benzene, C6H6, is one of the most organic ring structures because it is REALLY stable. a. It’s electron orbitals overlap to form delocalized clouds.
III. Other Organic Compounds • There are different groups of carbon atoms that are bonded with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. 1. They have their own properties and functions and are called functional groups.
Classes of Organic Compounds B. Classes of Organics Compounds and their functional groups. (see pg. 241) 1. Alcohol 2. Aldehyde 3. Halide 4. Amine 5. Carboxylic Acid 6. Ester 7. Ether 8. Ketone