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Community Based Targeting & Distribution Systems (CBTD) • Evolution & Historical Context • Why CBTD • Principles and Pillars of CBTD • Case study Oxfam GB experience in Turkana • Challenges & Weakness of CBTD
Evolution and Historical Context • Parallel systems in delivery of Food Aid in Kenya by different players (GOK, WFP, NGOs) • These had a lot of problems (Duplication of efforts, waste of resources, diversion & loss of food. • The uncoordinated response was not effective, accountable, transparent and less efficient • These prompted the need for more coordinated response under a single pipeline system.
Evolution of CBDT System in Kenya • The idea of CBDT was conceived from pilot experiences of Oxfam and others who tested the the entitlement system in East African countries, in the 90s and alter documented these for lobby purposes • In 1999, Key stake holders recognised the weakness in the parallel food targeting and distribution systems in Kenya and the strengths the above system.
Evolution of CBDT cont. • The key stakeholders finally resolved and adopted the CBDT system that involves beneficiaries in targeting and management of food distribution. • Formation of management and delivery structures across all levels (KFSM, KFSSG, DSGs) • Rolled out through series of training, production of guidelines by GOK and WFP
Principles/Pillars of CBDT • Cultural sensitivity - distribution revolves around beneficiaries’ life style and culture • Transparency & Accountability -(Donors & Ben). Information sharing,clarity on roles & responsibilities and accountability between all levels and stakeholders • Dignity & Respect of Beneficiaries – Beneficiaries Should not be viewed as poor & hopeless lot but people who have a right to life with dignity. • Beneficiaries’ participation – this is paramount & involves decisions, management of distribution, M&E. • Gender sensitivity - Women should play central roles in mgt & disbn of food. At least 50 % of RC be women.
OGB Experience & Application of Principle of CBTD. • Targeting at National and district levels. (KFSSG & DSG) • Mobilization, sensitisation &Targeting at Community level • Facilitation of beneficiaries’ targeting and registration, • Election & training of RCs • Overseeing actual distribution process (info sharing, documentation & roles of RC) • PDM (feed back on process, impact)
OGB Experience Cont.Challenges • The participatory nature of the approach creates difficulties in arriving at a consensus on certain issues • The approach is time-consuming • Could be perceived as discriminative • Devolves power from traditional centres to ordinary people and can thus generate tension • Attitudinal and cultural beliefs could prevent disadvantaged groups from speaking up
Challenges Cont….. • Some deserving cases could be left out on account of selection criteria • Targeting can generate conflict within the community • Personal differences can inhibit cooperation • Community do not understand rational behind higher level decisions (qty, timing, targeting, basket etc)
Strengths of CBDT • Promotes efficient resource use • Continuous information sharing enhances transparency & accountability. • Empowers communities and promotes consensus • Enhances community organisation and capacity building, • Enhances equal relationship between community members and implementing agency • Inculcates a sense of ownership • Provides opportunity for the identification of the most needy
Strengths. Cont….. • Minimises diversion of food • Allows for innovative adjustments • Minimises political interference • Promotes gender sensitivity • Incorporates all categories of people in the community • It is largely bottom-up rather than top-down • Builds rapport and reduces resistance
Overall weaknesses of CBTD • The opportunities for community to influence higher decisions is limited • Community empowerment is limited to operational level actions (management of distribution and selection of beneficiaries. But powerless to challenge DSG & KFSSG decisions.(targeting, scaling up and scale down) • Too much bureaucracy to effect change.