Opener for November 11:. Copy down the agenda in your agenda book, please. If you still have portions of your project to turn in, please do so now. I plan to contact your parents tonight, if you have any part of the project missing. Queen of England 1558 - 1603.
Copy down the agenda in your agenda book, please.
If you still have portions of your project to turn in, please do so now.
I plan to contact your parents tonight, if you have any part of the project missing.
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth’s life was troubled the moment she was born. Her father, Henry VIII, changed the course of England’s history with the desire for a male heir.
Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was “inherited” from his older brother. His older brother had actually married Catherine, yet died 4 months later. Henry was 10 at the time.
Arthur Tudor, c. 1501
Catherine’s parents were Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. A treaty was signed to allow Catherine to marry the next heir to the throne of England, Henry.
Since Catherine was Henry’s dead brother’s wife, a special dispensation was needed from the Pope, to allow them to marry. Since both the kings of England and Spain wanted this marriage to be legitimate, dispensation was sought, and received, from the Pope.
Pope Clement VII
By Sebastiano del Piombo
On April 22, 1509, Henry’s father, King Henry VII died. Henry was declared king at the young age of 18.
In January, 1511, Catherine gave birth to their first child, a boy, who died two months later. Unfortunately, this was the first of many children who died shortly after birth.
On February 18, 1516, Catherine gave birth to Mary, the only child to survive infancy. Henry grew more desperate for a son, because he wanted to make sure there would be no war over succession (his father had won the throne after defeating Richard III).
Mary in 1544
Painted by Master John
In 1525, Henry fell in love with a young woman in the Queen’s entourage: Anne Boleyn. She at first resisted his advances. This, in turn, made Henry pursue Anne more fervently. Anne realized the power that she held, and she insisted that the only way she would accept Henry is if he made her queen.
Late Elizabethan portrait of Anne Boleyn, possibly derived from a lost original of 1533–36
So, in order to marry Anne, Henry had to obtain a divorce from Catherine. To do this, he needed an annulment from the Pope, which would declare the marriage to Catherine had never taken place. As you know, the annulment was not granted by the Pope, so Henry decided that, since he was king, he’d do what he wanted to do!
In the winter of 1532, Henry and Anne married secretly. Sometime thereafter, Anne discovered she was pregnant, and a second wedding service was held, on January 25, 1533.
On May 23, 1533, Henry’s first marriage to Catherine was declared null and void. Five days later, Henry’s marriage to Anne was declared to be valid.
The Princess Elizabeth, aged about 13 (1546). Sometimes attributed to William Scrots
Anne was declared to have committed treason, and was executed on May 19, 1536.
Elizabeth was then declared illegitimate, stripped of the title of “Princess”, and she was sent away from court.
Portrait of Prince Edward
Painted by an unknown artist
Left to Right: 'Mother Jak', The Lady Mary, Prince Edward, Henry VIII, Jane Seymour, The Lady Elizabeth and Wil Somers
By the autumn of 1537, Elizabeth was under the care of Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy
When Henry married his final wife, Katherine Parr, she brought both Mary and Elizabeth back to court.
William Scrots, c. 1550
After Edward’s succession to the throne, Elizabeth went to live with Katherine Parr.
In January, 1553, Edward VI fell ill. When his illness was discovered to be terminal, Edward drew up a “Devise for Succession”.
This succession was disputed after Edward’s death, and Lady Jane Grey was “queen” of England for only nine days.
The Streatham Portrait, discovered at the beginning of the 21st century and believed to be a copy of a contemporary portrait of Lady Jane Grey.
Mary, Elizabeth’s older sister, was crowned Queen of England on October 1, 1553.
Mary I as Queen
by Hans Eworth
Under much protest, Mary married Phillip II of Spain. It is said that she declared herself to be in love with him when she set eyes upon this formal portrait of him, painted by Titian.
There were a couple of reasons why this marriage was unpopular, both with members of Parliament and the English population in general:
Due to the unpopularity of the marriage, Elizabeth’s live got interesting.
Portrait of Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger
Elizabeth, however, protested her innocence in this uprising. Mary, determined not to be dethroned, sent Elizabeth to the Tower of London.
There is a story about Elizabeth’s entry into the Tower. She was deathly afraid of the Tower, and when she was told that she would entering through the Traitor’s Gate, she refused to move from the boat that had brought her.
Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower for two months, after which she was under house arrest at Woodstock Palace.
On April 17, 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court. The reason behind this is that Mary wanted to keep an eye on Elizabeth, during the final months of Mary’s apparent pregnancy.
When it became clear that Mary was NOT pregnant, people began to believe that Mary would never have a child (she was, at this time 39 years old).
In 1558, Mary fell ill. Phillip sent one of his advisors to consult with Elizabeth.
One of Elizabeth’s first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant Church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This has since evolved into today’s Church of England.
The Sieve Portrait". Elizabeth with a sieve, a symbol of virginity
From the beginning of her reign, it was expected that Elizabeth would marry. She considered many suitors, until she was about 50 (in other words, she played the “Marriage Game” for 25 years!)
The Rainbow Portrait.
Attributed to Isaac Oliver
Elizabeth was a skilled diplomat. She kept the marriage question open as a ploy, treating it as an aspect of foreign policy.
I have already joined myself in marriage to a husband, namely the kingdom of England.(Elizabeth to Parliament)
"The Phoenix Portrait“
attributed to Nicholas Hilliard
During the early years of Elizabeth’s reign, Spain was most powerful nation in the world. Phillip II ruled mass territories of land, and had the wealth of the New World under his control.
Spanish territories in the 18th century
First of all, England had returned to being a Protestant country, and Phillip believed it was his mission to return it to Catholicism.
The "Hampden" portrait
by Steven van der Meulen, ca. 1563
But, probably the most problematic was Elizabeth’s support of her privateers:
by Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1585
painting by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
One of at least three versions of The Armada Portrait.
While English sailors and soldiers fought, Elizabeth refused to sit in a palace and wait for the outcome. Instead, she traveled to Tilbury. Like a true warrior, she rode a white horse and inspected her troops. She also made what was possibly her most famous speech of all:
I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm
No invasion of England came. The Armada was defeated at sea, and, as it tried to return to Spain going north, around Scotland, a storm rose up and battered the remaining ships.
Elizabeth was a political genius – she nurtured her country through careful leadership. She also chose capable men to assist her. Although she was determined, she knew when to listen, and follow advice. She would change a policy if it became unpopular with the people. Her approach to politics was serious, conservative and cautious.
Elizabeth near the end of her life
Elizabeth at a picnic. Woodcut from The Booke of Hunting
Elizabeth was also a skilled musician, and played the virginals (a type of harpsichord) and the lute
Elizabeth playing the lute.
Painted by Nicholas Hilliard c. 1580
Elizabeth also enjoyed musical entertainment, encouraged musicians and composers, and she loved to dance.
Elizabeth with a fan
Artist unknown, c.1585
She enjoyed plays, and she had her own company of players, the Queen’s Players, who would perform for the queen and her court.
"The Ditchley Portrait“
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c. 1592
When Elizabeth ascended the throne of England in 1558, England was an impoverished country torn apart by religious squabbles.
To this day, the period in which she ruled is known as the “Elizabethan Era”.
The tomb of Mary and Elizabeth at Westminster Abbey. The Latin translates: "Partners both in throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection."
Elizabeth in procession to Blackfriars in 1600. In the style of Peake