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Cost-Effective Water Reuse Presentation to the 2003 Virginia Municipal League Annual Conference By William S. M’Coy, P.E., DEE Vice President HDR Engineering, Inc.
Water Reuse Terms Defined Reclaimed Water – water resulting from the treatment of domestic, municipal or industrial wastewater that is suitable for a direct beneficial or controlled use. • Reuse – use of reclaimed water
Types of Water Reuse • Potable Reuse • Direct – not practiced in US • Indirect – aquifer recharge, reservoir discharge • Non-Potable Reuse • Direct – irrigation, cooling water, fire suppression • Indirect – wetlands restoration, groundwater recharge
Why Reuse Water? Reduces Pollutants to Rivers and Estuaries Limited New Water Sources Lowers Cost to Users Social/ Environmental Benefits Restores Groundwater Levels Relieves Potable Water Demand Improves Potable Water Quality Offers Reliable Water Supply (Drought-Proof) Restores River/Lake Levels
Typical Uses of Reclaimed Water • Residential Landscape Irrigation • Park/Golf Course Irrigation • Industrial Cooling Water and Process Water • Dust Control • Fire Suppression • Groundwater Recharge • Agricultural/Silvicultural Irrigation • Wetlands Flow Augmentation
Reuse Project Requires Stakeholder Involvement • Water Supplier • Wastewater Agency • Economic Development • Chamber of Commerce • Environmental Groups • State/Federal Regulators • Customers (or Anticipated Customers) • Public
Current Reuse Projects in Virginia • Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA) • Indirect Potable Reuse • Up to 54 millions gallons per day of Reclaimed Water to Occoquan Reservoir • Since 1970 • Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) • Industrial Reuse (Oil Refinery) • Cooling Water, Fire Suppression, Utility Water • Up to 500,000 gpd • Since 2002
Obstacles to Water Reuse Cost of Treatment and Distribution Lack of Stakeholder Consensus No Regulatory Guidance in VA Public Perception Inexpensive Water Supplies
Cost-Effectiveness of Water Reuse Potable Water $3-4 /1000 gal Reclaimed Water $1-9/1000 gal Sewage Collection NC Sewage Treatment NC Tertiary Treatment $1-7/1000 gal Distribution $0-2/1000 gal
Future of Water Reuse in Virginia • Potable Water Cost Increases • More Stringent Regulations • Diminishing Supplies • Reduction in Reclaimed Water Costs • Improvements in Treatment Technologies • Increasing Water Demands • Reduction in Pollutant Discharges • Reuse Regulatory Guidance??