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COURSE PLANNING & SYLLABUS DESIGN Developing rationale Describing entry and exit levels Choosing course content Sequencing course content Planning the course content (Syllabus) Preparing the scope and sequence plan
SYLLABUS DESIGN Syllabus and ways of organizing courses & materials Structural Syllabus Grammatical and phonological structures are the organizing principles--sequenced from easy to difficult or from frequent to less frequent. Situational Syllabus Situations (such as at the bank, at the supermarket, at a restaurant, and so forth) form the organizing principle--sequenced by the likelihood that students will encounter them.* Topical Syllabus Topic or themes (such as health, food, clothing, and so forth) form the organizing principle--sequenced by the likelihood that students will encounter them. * Adapted from James Dean Brown (1995) * (structural sequence may be in background)
Functional Syllabus Functions (such as identifying, reporting, correcting, describing, and so forth) are the organizing principle--sequenced by some sense of chronology or usefulness of each function. * Notional Syllabus Conceptual categories called notions (such as duration, quantity, location, and so forth) are the basis of organization--sequenced by some sense of chronology or usefulness of each notion. * Skills Syllabus Skills (such as listening for gist, listening for main ideas, listening for inferences, scanning a reading passage for specific information, and so forth) serve as the basis for organization--sequenced by some sense of chronology or usefulness of each skill. * Task Syllabus Task or activity-based categories (such as drawing maps, following directions, following instructions, and so forth) serve as the basis for organization--sequenced by some sense of chronology or usefulness of each task. *
SAMPLE SYLLABI Structural Syllabi They focus on phonological & grammatical structures. Azar, B.S. (1989). Understanding and using English grammar (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. Chapter 1 Verb tenses 1-1 The simple tenses 1-2 The progressive tenses 1-3 The perfect tenses 1-4 The perfect progressive tenses 1-5 Summary chart of verb tenses 1-6 Spelling of -ing and -ed forms Chapter 2 Model auxiliaries and similar expressions . . . . . . Chapter 3 The passive . . . . . . Chapter 4 Gerunds and infinitives . . . . . . Situational Syllabi They are based on the idea that language is found in different contexts, or situations. Briton, D. & Neuman, R. (1982). Getting along: English grammar and writing, Book 1. Prentice-Hall. Introductions Getting acquainted At the housing office Deciding to live together Let's have coffee Looking for an apartment At the pier . . . . . .
SAMPLE SYLLABI Notional Syllabi They are organized around conceptual categories called general notions (distance, duration, quantity, location, etc.) Hall, D. & Bowyer, T. (1980). Nucleus English for science and technology: Mathematics. Longman Unit 1 Properties and Shapes Unit 2 Location Unit 3 Structure Unit 4 Measurement 1 Unit 5 Process 1 Function and Ability Unit 6 Actions in Sequence Functional Syllabi They are organized around the principle of semantic uses, or meaning packets, called language functions. Jones, L., & van Baeyer, C. (1983). Functions of American English: Communication activities for the classroom. Cambridge UP. 1. Talking about yourself, starting a conversation, making a date 2. Asking for information: question techniques, answering techniques 3. Getting people to do things: requesting, attracting attention, agreeing and refusing 4. Talking about past events: remembering, describing experiences, imaging What if. . . 5. Conversion techniques: hesitating, preventing interruptions and interrupting politely, bringing people together
SAMPLE SYLLABI Topical Syllabi They are similar to the situational syllabus, but they are organized on topics or themes, rather than situations. Smith, L. C., & Mare, N. N. (1990). Issues for today: An effective reading skills text. Newbury House. Unit I Trends in Living 1. A Cultural Difference: Being on Time 2. Working Hard or Hardly Working 3. Changing Life-Styles & New Eating Habits Unit II Issues in Society 4. Loneliness 5. Can Stress Make You Sick? 6. Care of Elderly: A Family Matter Unit III Individuals and Crime 7. Aggressive Behavior: The Violence Behind . . . . . . Skill-based Syllabi They are organized around language and academic skills. Barr, P., & Clegg, J., and Wallace, C. (1983). Advanced reading skills. Longman. Scanning Key Words Topic Sentences Reference Words Connections . . . . . .
SAMPLE SYLLABI Task-Based Syllabi They are organized around different types of tasks that the students might be required to perform in the language. Jolly, D. (1984). Writing tasks: An authentic-task approach to individual writing needs. Cambridge UP. 1. Writing notes and memos 2. Writing personal letters 3. Writing telegrams, personal ads, & instructions 4. Writing descriptions 5. Reporting experiences 6. Writing to companies and officials Mixed or Layered Syllabi Two or more types of syllabuses are chosen together. (James Brown, 1995) Scanning (Skill-based) Unit One A Place of Your Own (Topical) Section 1 Leaving Home Section 2 A Roof Over Your Head Section 3 An Englishman's Home Section 4 No Place Like Home Key Words Unit Two People Who Matter Section 1 Falling in Love Section 2 Problem Page Section 3 For Better, For Worse Part A--Marriage Part B--Divorce
BLOOM'S (1965) TAXONOMY Knowledge Where did? What was? Who was? When did? How many? Locate. Tell me. Comprehension Tell us in your own words. What does it mean? Give us an example. Describe what. Illustrate the part of the book…. Make a map, a chart, a graphic… Application What would happen if…. Would you have done the same...? If you were there would you…? How would you solve…? In the library, find information about…. Analysis What things would you have used…? What other ways could…? What things are similar/different…? What part of this was the most interesting? Why? Would it be the same for all? Synthesis What would it be like if…? Pretend you are…. What would it be like to live…. Design a…. What would have happened if … ? Add something new to this…. Tell it from a different perspective. Evaluation Would you recommend… why? why not? Select the best…. Why do you think that? Could this really happen? Which part of this would you moist like to do? How?
OUTLINE OF BLOOM'S(1965) TAXONOMY 1.0 Knowledge 1.1 knowledge of specifics 1.11 knowledge of terminology 1.12 knowledge of specific facts 1.2 knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics 1.21 knowledge of convention 1.22 knowledge of trends and sequences 1.23 knowledge of classifications and categories 1.24 knowledge of criteria 1.25 knowledge of methodology 1.3 knowledge of universals and abstractions in a field 1.31 knowledge of principles and generalizations 1.31 knowledge of theories and structures 2.0 Comprehension 2.1 translation 2.2 Interpretation 2.3 Extrapolation 3.0 Application 4.0 Analysis 4.1 Analysis of elements 4.2 Analysis of relationship 4.3 Analysis of organizational principles 5.0 Synthesis 5.1 Production of unique communication 5.2 Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations 5.3 Derivation of a set of abstract relations 6.0 Evaluation 6.1 Judgments in terms of internal evidence 6.2 Judgments in terms of external criteria
READING OBJECTIVES (From Bennett, 1972) 1.0 Literal Comprehension 1.1 Recognition 1.11 Recognition of details 1.12 Recognition of main ideas 1.13 Recognition of a sequence 1.14 Recognition of comparison . . . . . . 1.2 Recall 1.11 Recall of details 1.12 Recall of main ideas 1.13 Recall of a sequence 1.14 Recall of comparison . . . . . . 2.0 Reorganization 2.1 Classification 2.2 Outline 2.3 Summarizing 2.4 Synthesizing 3.0 Inferential comprehension 3.1 Inferential supporting details 3.2 Inferential main ideas 3.3 Inferential sequence 3.4 Inferential comparison . . . . . . 4.0 Evaluation 4.1 Judgment of reality or fantasy 4.2 Judgment of facts or opinion 4.3 Judgment of adequacy and validity . . . . . . 5.0 Apprehension 5.1 Emotional response to content 5.2 Identification with characters or incidents 5.3 Reactions to the author's use of language 5.4 Imagery
Determining the Scope and Sequence • Scope and Sequence: • Address the distribution of content throughout the course • Scope: • The breadth and depth of coverage of items in the course. • What range of content will be covered? • To what extent should each topic be studied? • Sequence: • Order and frequency of content • Simple to complex • Chronology • Prerequisite learning • Spiral sequencing • Whole to part or part to whole • Need
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART Unit 1. Lesson 1 1.1 Functional Category: Greeting and Introductions 1.2 Function: Greetings and leave-taking; asking about, and giving personal identification; making introduction 1.3 Syntax:‘be’ 3rd person singular; affirmative and interrogative Examples: This is …; What’s…? My name is… Demonstrative pronoun: this Possessive adjectives: my & yours 1.4 Lexis: Cardinal numbers 1-10 Alphabet: A,B, C English names Greetings 1.5 Phonology:/ei/ /ai/ /i/ Unit 1. Lesson 2 2.1 Functional Category: Asking about 2.2Function: Asking about the identity of others 2.3Syntax: Imperative Possessive adjectives: his & her 2.4 Lexis: Vocabulary for the classroom and classroom activities Alphabet: D, E, G, I, P, T, V, Y 2.5 Phonology:/ei/ /ai/ /e/ /i/ ( Adapted from Vincent, Foll, & Cripwell, 1985)