Ch 36 Musculoskeletal System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ch 36 Musculoskeletal System

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  1. Ch 36 Musculoskeletal System AP lecture

  2. Three vertebrate muscles • Skeletal • A.k.a striated • Voluntary movements

  3. Cardiac • Involuntary • Beating of the heart • Appears striated because of myosin and actin • Smaller than skeletal • Cells attached by gap junctions

  4. Smooth • Involuntary • Movement of internal organs • Internal organs controlled by ANS • Smaller than skeletal • Do not appear striated because of the actin and myosin arrangements

  5. Muscle contraction • Skeletal muscle cells and muscle fibers are bundled together by connective tissue • Interactions between actin and myosin • Every muscle fiber is made of myofibrils- actin and myosin in repeating segments called sarcomeres

  6. Muscle involuntary, striatedauto-rhythmic voluntary, striated heart moves bone multi-nucleated involuntary, non-striated digestive systemarteries, veins evolved first

  7. Actin • Thin filaments • Long chains of actin monomers twisted around each other. • Twisted around that chain is tropomyosin and attached to that is troponin. • These control contractions and relaxation

  8. Myosin • Two long polypeptide chains coiled together. Each ends in a large globular head. • Myosin filaments have many myosin molecules

  9. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter10/animation__myofilament_contraction.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter10/animation__myofilament_contraction.html

  10. ATP feeds the contractions • Immediate system uses ATP • Glycolytic system metabolizes carbohydrates to lactate and pyruvate • Oxidative system metabolizes carbohydrates or fats into water and carbon dioxide

  11. formcrossbridge releasecrossbridge shortensarcomere Where is ATP needed? binding site CleavingATP ADP allows myosin head to bind to actin filament thin filament(actin) myosin head ADP 1 thick filament(myosin) 2 ATP 1 1 3 1 1 4

  12. Put it all together… 1 2 3 ATP 7 4 6 ATP 5

  13. Vertebrate skeleton • 206 bones • Axial skeleton • Skull, vertebral column ,sternum and ribs • Appendicular skeleton • Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arm, leg, hands and feet bones

  14. Important bones

  15. Bone growth

  16. Joints • Two bones join and muscles work in antagonistic pairs • Flexor • Extensor • Types of joints • Ball and socket • Pivot • Hinge

  17. Tendon • Ligament