Pre-reading Task: The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald Gordon Lightfoot Grammy Nominations 1968 Best Folk Performance 1971 Best Pop Performance Male 1977 Best Pop Vocal Performance Male
Pre-reading Task: The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald
Pre-Reading Task —Vocabulary legend n.传说 gale n.大风 hurricane n.飓风 hatchway n.舱口 cave in 坍塌 capsize v.(使)倾覆 chime vi.(钟)敲响 freighter n.货船 tattletale n.告密者, 搬弄是非的人; adj.泄露实情的 slash v./n. 鞭打，猛砍 wire in 用电话通报 peril n. 极大的危险(imminent danger) mansion n.大厦 steam n.愤怒，兴奋 mariner n.水手 musty adj.发霉的, 有霉味的 maritime adj.海上的 cathedral n.大教堂
Pre-Reading Task The song is based on a true story of the sinking of a ship called ______________ that was caught in a storm on Lake ________ back in _________, 1975, with the loss of all on board. Why did the crew fear the worst would happen to them? They all knew the dangers of November storms. The Edmund Fitzgerald Superior November
Pre-Reading Task — Brainstorming Can you think of other examples of nature showing its forces? Is nature conquerable? (You can refer to the quotations on Page 13.
Hurricanes One of the most awesome expressions of power that nature can create. With sustained wind speeds of 74 mph or more, they can rip a house from its foundation and even wipe out entire cities. ? • But where and how are they created? • When during the year will they most likely form? • What can we do if we are caught in one?
Tsunami-1 The word comes from the Japanese tsu (harbor) and nami (wave). Appropriate naming, as some 80 percent of all tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean and Japan has suffered many, some coming from as far away as South America. Tsunamis are often incorrectly called tidal waves, but tides have nothing to do with them (though the damage may be worse if a tsunami hits at high tide).
Tsunami-2 According to researchers, there is a significant rise both in numbers of waves and in death tolls over the century. Up until now - the average per decade has been 57. The increase in tsunamis reported is due to improved global communications; the high death are partly due to increases in coastal populations.
Tsunamis ~ Tidal Waves ~ Flooding Tsunamis are tidal waves formed by • underwater earthquakes, • volcanic eruptions • meteor impacts • underwater landslides. In deep water a tsunami may only be inches - or a few feet high. But when it reaches a shoreline that energy becomes a wall of water that can be a mile high.
Frequently Used Words Related to Forces of Nature casualty death toll survivors victims tsunami warning system earthquake monitoring international contributions evacuation team smaller tremors 伤亡人数 死亡人数 幸存者 受灾者 海啸预警系统 地震监控 国际援助 撤运小组 小震动，小地震
Frequently Used Words Related to Forces of Nature 潮汐波，浪潮 震中 地震 余震 震级 灾难 残骸 自然灾害 tsunami tidal waves epicenter earthquake/temblor (AmE) aftershock magnitude (Richter Scale) tragedy wreckage natural disaster
Text A The Icy Defender • Cultural Notes • Text Analysis and Language Study • Summary: Comparison and contrast between Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union • Exercises
Cultural Notes • What do you know about Napoleon and his wars against other nations? • Napoleon Bonaparte • Conqueror • French revolution • one of the greatest military commanders conquering the larger part of Europe • the battle of Waterloo • Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon is famed for his military successes. Starting as a second lieutenant in the French artillery, he rose quickly through the ranks until he became First Consul of France. (Later he crowned himself Emperor.)
He led his armies to victory after victory, and by 1807 he ruled a territory that stretched from Portugal to Italy and north to the river Elbe.
But his attempts to conquer the rest of Europe failed; a defeat in Moscow in 1812 nearly destroyed his empire, and his 1815 loss to the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo finished the job. He was sent into exile on the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
Text Analysis & Language Study Part One (Paras 1--2) • Main idea Introduction—Both Napoleon’s and Hitler’s military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter
Text Analysis & Language Study Part One devastating (L.5) raw (L. 5) bleak (L. 5) launch (L.7) might (L. 8) campaign (L.10)
Text Analysis & Language Study Part Two (Paras 3--11) • Main idea Napoleon’s military campaign against Russia
Text Analysis & Language Study conquest (L. 16) be/get bogged down (L. 22) engage (L. 24) take a gamble (L. 30) press on/ahead (L. 30) flee (L. 37) bide one’s time (L. 39) quarter (L. 41) drag on (L. 50) stroke (L. 54) limp (56) Part Two
Text Analysis & Language Study Part Three (Paras 12--20) Main idea Hitler’s military campaign against the Soviet Union
Marcks Plan The initial German proposal for invasion of the Soviet Union: two army groups and primary strikes in the direction of Moscow and Kiev with a secondary attack toward Leningrad. The northern army group would push southward after reaching Moscow, linking up with the southern group at Kharkov.
OKH Plan The revised German Army High Command proposal for an invasion of the Soviet Union. It added weight to the attack toward Leningrad and called for a separate army group for this purpose. It also anticipated further eastward exploitation, independently, by the central and southern army groups.
Final Plan After consultations with Hitler, the final plan for Operation Barbarossa called for the diversion of forces from the central army group, after the capture of Smolensk, to support the northern army group in attacking Leningrad and only after achieving this would the central army group continue operations toward Moscow. The objectives of the southern army groups essentially remained the same.
The Biggest Mistakes of Hitler Timing of Barbarossa -- too late for summer season "Moscow could have been reached faster, paralysing the capital and capturing more troops. But these were dreams of ambitious commanders who were increasingly at odds with each other and had long lost any idea how Russia could be defeated – how the will of the leadership and the nation could be broken."
Text Analysis & Language Study Part Three catch sb off guard (L. 71) bring to a halt (L. 91) render (L. 73) offensive (L. 92) casualty (L. 75) turn the tide against (L.102) close in (L. 76) reckon (L. 114) desperate (L. 78) toll (L. 116) siege (L.81)
Text Analysis & Language Study Part Four (Paras 21) Conclusion—The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign
Text Analysis & Language Study Part Four reckon (L. 114) toll (L. 116)
Text Organization: Comparison and contrast between Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union
Invading country France Germany Country invaded Russia Soviet Union Starter of war Napoleon Hitler Starting time of invasion Spring, 1812 6/22/1941 The largest land campaign in history Strength of invading force 600,000 prediction Blitzkrieg(lighting war), lasting no longer than 3 months Quick victory, conquest of Russia in 5 weeks
Refusing to stand and fight; retreating eastwards, burning crops and homes Initial resistance strategy “scorch the earth”, fierce fight to defend major cities Capture of the Russian capital yes no Major battles Smolensk, Borodino, the Berezina River Leningrad, Stalingrad no By Napoleon, rejected by the Czar Truce offer
Heavy rain, “general mud”, snow, freezing temperature Biggest enemy for the invading force Snow, freezing temperature 1943, when the Soviet troops pushed the German forces back Turning point October 1812, when Napoleon ordered a retreat Only 100,000 survived Fate of the invading force Heavy losses Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end Hitler committed suicide, his empire collapsing War-starter’s fate
devastating (L.5) 1) completely destructive: devastating storm/tsunami/war/hurricane 2) very good; able to obtain the desired result (infml): You look devastating tonight, my dear. His jokes were completely devastating. (=very funny). • Devastate vt. to destroy completely; make impossible to live in towns and villages devastated by a long war
raw (L. 5) • (of weather) cold and wet a ~ winter day • (of food) not cooked ~ vegetables • in the natural state; not yet treated for use ~ silk/ cotton 4. (of a person) not yet trained; not experienced a ~ lad/ recruit/ youth; ~ to the work. 5. My sarcasm seemed to have touched him on the ~. touch/catch/get/rub/sting sb on the ~ to hurt (someone’s) feelings by mentioning a subject on which he is sensitive (触及某人痛处)
bleak (L. 5) • (of weather) cold and cheerless ~ and unpleasant weather • (of places) without shelter from cold winds a ~ hillside struck by the full force of the east wind • (of future events) cold; cheerless; uninviting; discouraging The future of this firm will be very ~ indeed if we keep losing money.
Launch (L. 7) • v. start; send (sth) on it’s course ~ a satellite / rocket ~ oneself into work (on a teaching career) ~ a new business/an enterprise The UN was ~ed in 1945 with 51 member countries. ~ a new journal/an investigation ~ a strike/ an attack • n. The ~ of the new campaign/movie
might (L. 8) • n. power; strength; force The army fought bravely, but it was crushed by the ~ of its powerful enemy. He tried with all his ~ to move the heavy rock from the road. military ~/the ~ of RAF (Royal Air Force) a man of ~/beyond one’s ~ with/by (all one’s) might and main (竭尽全力) • mighty adj. having great power or strength; very great a mighty blow/king A pen is mightier than a sword.
mow down (L. 9) • to kill, destroy, or knock down, esp. in great numbers The soldiers were mown down by fire from the enemy’s guns.
campaign (L.10) • n. a connected set of military actions with a particular purpose The ~ to seize Moscow was a complete failure. • n. a connected set of actions intended to obtain a particular result in politics or business The Leader of the Oppositions is on ~ in Scotland. The ~ is to promote the product in the college student market. • v. to lead, take part in, or go on a campaign Joan is ~ing for equal rights for women.
conquest (L. 16) n. • the act of conquering The year 2003 witnessed the ~ of Iraq by the USA. • something conquered, esp. land gained in war British ~s in Asia • a person whose favor or love has been won He’s one of pretty Jane’s many ~s. John seems to have made a real conquest of Janet. They’re always together. • make a conquest (of) to win the love or favor of (someone)
be/get bogged down (L. 22) bog down • to (cause to) sink (as if) into a BOG; be unable to make progress The car (got) bogged down in the mud. We were bogged down with a lot of work. • be bogged down in/ by difficulties The talks with the men (got) bogged sown on the questions of working hours. Industrial production has bogged down
engage (L. 24) • v. attack; begin fighting with sb. They ~d the enemy (in the battle). • ~ a new secretary • I’ve ~d a room in the hotel. • He ~d (himself) to pay back the money. • She ~s everyone with her pretty girlish ways. • The old lady ~d herself in making clothes for her neighbors’ children. • I will engage for John’s good behavior should you decide to employ him. • Can you believe a 9 year-old-boy is engaging in presidential election?
take a gamble (L. 30) take a risk He took a gamble on a legacy of a thousand pounds and used it to start a factory. Laid off, she took a gamble investing all her money in stocks. He gambled his savings to start a small store. I’ll gamble my life on his honesty.
take a gamble (L. 30) • gamble at cards • gamble on the result of a race • gamble in stocks/ on the stock exchange • gamble with one’s life • I wouldn’t gamble on Jane’s footing the bill, if I were you. • He’s gambled away all his money, and now has nothing left.
press on/ahead/ forward (with sth.) (L. 30) • continue doing sth. in a determined way; advance with courage or without delay Let’s press on with our work. The new president of our university seems to be keen to press on with educational reform. Though faced with great difficulties, he is determined to press on.