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# The four forces of nature - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The four forces of nature. Gravity, electromagnetism, Strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. Presented By: Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti. Gravity. Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.

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Presentation Transcript

of nature

Gravity, electromagnetism,

Strong nuclear,

and weak nuclear

Presented By:

Brittany Kach and Julia Angotti

• Gravity is the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other.

• It is responsible for pulling you, me, and everything else on Earth towards the center of the planet.

• Newton witnessed gravity when he saw an apple falling to the ground.

• Everything on Earth falls with a velocity

of 9.8 m/s squared.

• No matter the mass of the object, it will

always fall at that speed if it’s on Earth.

• Newton also realized that the force responsible for pulling objects to the ground is the same one responsible for planetary orbit.

• Einstein also agreed with this but changed how we looked at it.

• He thought of gravity in space as a space-time fabric, in which everything in the universe rests on.

• The bigger mass an object has, the larger

the warp in space-time.

• The warps in the fabric of causes planets

to orbit.

• Take something that has a large mass, for example, our sun.

• Our sun would create a large dip in the space-time fabric.

• Our Earth and all the other planets in our solar system orbit around the warps the sun makes in the fabric.

• The wider the dip the object is going around, the longer it takes to complete an orbit.

• This is also how satellites orbit

around Earth.

• Electromagnetism is the force that does many things.

• Lightning is an example of electromagnetism in nature.

• During a storm, the magnetic field around the Earth is optimized.

• The build-up of electricity in the clouds charges with the magnetic field.

• Whenever the charge gets big

enough, it is released in a bolt

of energy.

• This is what lightning is.

• You might wonder why, if gravity pulls us toward the center of the Earth, that we don’t just get pulled straight through the ground.

• Well, electromagnetism is stronger than gravity and repels it.

• Electromagnetisms is also in atoms.

• Our atoms collide with the

atoms in the ground.

• Electromagnetism acts like

a barrier between our atoms

being pulled towards the Earth

and the atoms of the surface

of the Earth.

Gravity

Electromagnetism

• As stated before, electromagnetism is also found in atoms.

• It is the force that keeps the negatively charged electrons in orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

• It is a perfect example of electricity and magnetism.

• The magnetism aspect is the electrons, which get negatively charged.

• The electricity keeps it in orbit

around the neutral neutrons and the

positively charged electrons.

• It creates the harmony of balanced

charges throughout the entire atom.

• Strong Nuclear Force is found at the very center of the atoms.

• It acts like a subatomic super glue.

• This force binds the protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus of an atom.

• The force binding them together is hundreds of times stronger than our force of gravity.

• It is slim to nearly impossible to

break apart the nucleus.

• But, when it does happen,

it creates a huge catastrophe.

• The Strong Nuclear Force is also the cause for the devastating Nuclear Bomb.

• When an atom gets unstable enough, the nucleus does break apart.

• All the energy stored up from holding the nucleus together is released as a huge explosion.

• This explosion completely incinerates

anything it comes across, including

whole cities.

• This bomb is very hazardous and

powerful, while all the energy is coming

from a single atom.

• But, how do we harness this power to be activated at a precise moment?

• The answer is particle accelerators.

• These are long enclosed underground tunnels that are used to upset and atom.

• These work by pelting an unstable atom with protons in the tunnel until it starts to break

apart.

• Then it goes to be transported

into the bomb.

• When the bomb drops on the

targeted area, it causes the

atom to become even more upset

and completely break apart, causing

the explosion we recognize.

• The weak nuclear force is also found in atoms, but is dormant until the nucleus breaks apart.

• When the energy is released from the nucleus tearing apart, it creates a tremendous amount of heat.

• With enough heat, certain particles can be fused and changed into another particle.

• Weak nuclear force can change the neutral neutrons in the nucleus to positively charged protons.

activity is formed as a result.

N

P

• Radioactivity is the particles that are emitted when an atom explodes.

• There are three types of radiation – alpha particles (which are positively charged), beta particles (which are negatively charged), and gamma rays (which are neutral).

• Because it is impossible to predict when an atomic nucleus will emit radioactivity, radioactivity is measured using half-lives, which is the period of time it takes for half the nuclei to decay.

• Radioactivity causes superheroes and teenage mutant ninja turtles.

• No, just kidding. Radioactivity can weaken and break up DNA, causing the cells to die or mutant in ways that may lead to cancer.