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CHAPTER 1. STONE AGE SOCIETIES AND THE EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS OF THE NEAR EAST. The Development of Humankind. Most of human existence is prehistory. Apes to humans: hominids, Homo habilis , Homo erectus , Homo sapiens. Preliterate Cultures.

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chapter 1
the development of humankind
The Development of Humankind
  • Most of human existence is prehistory.
  • Apes to humans: hominids, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens.
preliterate cultures
Preliterate Cultures
  • Practical intelligence makes up for physical limitations
    • Paleolithic Culture: making and using tools
    • The Neolithic Revolution and Advent of Agriculture.
preliterate society and religion
Preliterate Society and Religion
  • Social Organization: elementary and extended families.
  • Customs, laws, and democracy organize early societies.
  • All of these advances occurred in different places on earth at different times.
mesopotamia the first civilization
Mesopotamia: The First Civilization
  • Historians argue about how to define a civilization.
  • A stable community, agriculture, architecture and writing
  • 6,000 B.C.E. The southern part of Mesopotamia, in Sumer.
  • Man vs. The Environment.
the emergence of civilization in sumer
The Emergence of Civilization in Sumer
  • c. 3200-2800 B.C.E.
  • Development of language, pottery wheel, wheeled vehicle.
the old sumerian period
The Old Sumerian Period
  • 2800-2300 B.C.E.
    • Constant warfare erupts between cities.
    • Theocracy
    • Political upheaval arises as the result of despotic abuse of power.
    • Slavery
the akkadian period
The Akkadian Period
  • C. 2300-2150 B.C.E.
  • Sargon I, ruler of Akkadian empire that stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea.
the neo sumerian period
The Neo-Sumerian Period
  • c. 2150-2000 B.C.E.
  • Characterized by the restoration of order by the Third Dynasty of Ur.
  • Religion as “arm of the state.”
the old babylonian period
The Old Babylonian Period
  • c. 2000-1600 B.C.E.
  • Hammurabi and his code.
    • Mathematics and Society
    • Literature and Religion
  • The End of an Era
egypt gift of the nile
Egypt: Gift of the Nile
  • One of Africa’s earliest civilizations.
  • Attachment to the Nile River.
  • Predynastic Egypt
the old kingdom
The Old Kingdom
  • c. 2700-2200 B.C.E.
  • All power becomes central: the pharaoh.
  • Pyramids
the middle kingdom
The Middle Kingdom
  • 2050-1800 B.C.E.
  • The Eleventh and Twelfth Dynasties restore order.
  • Hyksos of western Asia rule much of Egypt.
the new kingdom or empire
The New Kingdom or Empire
  • c. 1570-1090 B.C.E.
  • The “aggressive state” and Thutmose II
third intermediate period
Third Intermediate Period
  • c. 1090-332 B.C.E.
  • Amon priesthood ruled Upper Egypt
  • Libyans from the west ruled central Egypt.
  • Dynasty of merchant princes in the the Delta.
nubia and the kingdom of kush
Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush
  • 1600 B.C.E.
  • Kingdom of Kush developed, relying mostly on the Nile and agriculture.
  • Also united Egypt with African societies to the south and east.
  • Eventually absorbed by the Ethiopian kingdom c. 400 C.E.
egyptian society and economy
Egyptian Society and Economy
  • Social organization
  • Economy
  • Religion
  • Mathematics and Science
  • Monumentalism in Architecture
  • Sculpture and Painting
  • Writing and Literary Texts
the hittites
The Hittites
  • c. 2000-1200 B.C.E.
  • Probably entered Asia Minor from the northeast.
  • Aggressive and tenuous monarchies.
    • The Hittite Empire
    • Hittite Civilization
the era of small states
The Era of Small States
  • C. 1200-700 B.C.E.
  • The Phoenicians
  • The Hebrew Kingdoms
    • Questionable accuracy of biblical accounts
    • Hebrew religion
    • The Aramaeans
later empires of western asia
Later Empires of Western Asia
  • C. 700-500 B.C.E.
  • The Assyrian Empire
  • Assyrian Culture
  • Downfall of the Assyrian Empire
  • The Lydians and the Medes
  • The Chaldean Empire
the persian empire
The Persian Empire
  • Persian Government
  • Persian Religion and Art
  • What do we know?
  • What were the major factors that allowed for the development of civilizations?
  • Why did certain civilizations develop where they did?
  • Make a prediction: how are these civilizations going to affect those that follow them?