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Organic Molecule… PROTEIN. Enzyme. Hair. Hemoglobin. Antibody. Hormones. Human Growth Hormone. Muscle. Cell Membrane Proteins. albumin. Amino Acid. Amino Acids. Dehydration Synthesis. Lysozyme!!. A. Primary Structure. Sequence of Amino Acids with Peptide Bond

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Hormones
Hormones

Human Growth Hormone









A primary structure
A. Primary Structure

  • Sequence of Amino Acids with Peptide Bond

  • Peptide bond forms between OH of carboxyl and H of amino group

  • Determined by DNA

  • 1 change in AA = mutation of protei


B secondary structure
B. Secondary Structure

  • Folding of polypeptide backbone

  • Stabilized by H bonds between Peptide linkages

  • Alpha Helix

    • Bonds between every 4th peptide bond

    • Found in fibrous protein (keratin & collagen)4.


B secondary structure1
B. Secondary Structure

  • Beta Sheet

    a.Anti parallel chain folded into accordion

    b. Held together by H interchain H bonds

    c. Makes core of globular proteins


C tertiary structure
C. Tertiary Structure

  • Irregular contortions due to

    bonding between side chains

  • Weak interactions

    a. H bonds between polar side chains

    b. Ionic bonds between charged side chains

    c. Hydrophobic interactions between non-

    polar side chains


C tertiary structure1
C. Tertiary Structure

  • Covalent Linkages (strong bonds)

    a. Disulfide bridges between 2 cystein amino

    acid monomers


D quaternary structure
D. Quaternary Structure

  • Interaction between several polypeptide

    chains

  • Ex. Hemoglobin – 4 Subunits


E denatured proteins
E. Denatured Proteins

  • Lose conformation, unravels

  • Caused by

    -wrong pH

    -wrong temperature

    -wrong salt concentration

    -wrong heat

  • Makes protein inactive

  • Some can reform

  • Does not effect primary structure


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