Renewable Energy
1 / 58

Renewable Energy Chapter 18 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Renewable Energy Chapter 18. Advanced Placement Environmental Science. Energy Efficiency Solar Energy Hydropower Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Sustainability. Energy Efficiency.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Renewable Energy Chapter 18' - eze

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Renewable energy chapter 18

Renewable EnergyChapter 18

Advanced Placement Environmental Science

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Energy efficiency
Energy Efficiency

  • Increasing energy efficiency of common devices has economic and environmental advantages

    • Reducing oil imports

    • Prolonging fossil fuel supplies

    • Reducing pollution and environmental degradation

    • Saving money

    • Buys time to develop new technology

    • Creating jobs

Renewable energy chapter 18

Efficiency of Some Common Devices

Device Efficiency (%)

  • Dry-cell flashlight battery 90

  • Home gas furnace 85

  • Storage battery 70

  • Home oil furnace 65

  • Small electric motor 62

  • Steam power plant 38

  • Diesel engine 38

  • High-intensity lamp 32

  • Automobile engine 25

  • Fluorescent lamp 22

  • Incandescent lamp 4

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

percentage of energy input that does useful work in an energy conversion system

Ways to improve energy efficiency
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency

  • Between 1985 and 2001, the average fuel efficiency for new motor vehicles sold in the United States leveled off or declined

    • Fuel-efficient models account for only a tiny fraction of car sales

    • Hybrid-electric cars are now available and sales are expected to increase

    • Fuel-cell cars that burn hydrogen fuel will be available within a few years

    • Electric scooters and electric bicycles are short-range transportation alternatives

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy use of various types of transportation

Ways to improve energy efficiency1
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency

  • Superinsulated house is more expensive than a conventional house, but energy savings pay back the extra cost

  • Strawbale houses have the additional advantage of using an annually renewable agricultural residue, thus slowing deforestation

Ways to improve energy efficiency2
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency

  • Existing homes can be made more energy efficient

    • adding insulation

    • plugging leaks

    • installing energy-saving windows

    • wrapping water heaters

    • installing tankless models

    • buying energy-efficient appliances and lights

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Solar energy
Solar Energy

  • Buildings can be heated

    • passive solar heating system

    • active solar heating system

  • Solar thermal systems are new technologies that collect and transform solar energy into heat that can be used directly or converted to electricity

  • Photovoltaic cells convert solar energy directly into electricity

Renewable energy chapter 18

Suitability of Solar Usage

best when more than 60% of daylight hours sunny

Renewable energy chapter 18

Solar Heating

Passive system:

Absorbs & stores heat from the sun directly within a structure

Active system:

Collectors absorb solar energy, a pump supplies part of abuildings heating or water heating needs.

Solar domestic hot water sdhw
Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW)

  • An open circuit hot water system heats the domestic water directly on the roof of the building

  • The water flows from the heat collector into the hot water tank to be used in the house

  • Integration of solar energy conservation in homes can reduce energy consumption by 75-90%.

    • SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

Renewable energy chapter 18

Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells

Provides electricity for buildings

Inside the pv cell
Inside the PV cell

  • PV cells are made from silicon alloys

  • PV module

    • 1cm by 10cm cells

    • 36 cells connected SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

Solar thermal techniques
Solar Thermal Techniques

SolarTwo SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt


  • Heliostats provide concentrated sunlight to the power tower

  • The reflecting mirrors follow the sun along its daily trajectory SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

Power tower
Power Tower

  • Sunlight from mirrors are reflected to fixed receiver in power tower

  • Fluid transfers the absorbed solar heat into the power block

  • Used to heat a steam generator

Solar One SOLAR%20AMERICA%5B1%5D.ppt

Solar hydrogen revolution
Solar-Hydrogen Revolution

  • Splitting water can produce H2 gas

  • If scientists and engineers can learn how to use forms of solar energy to decompose water cheaply, they will set in motion a solar-hydrogen revolution

  • Hydrogen-powered fuel cells could power vehicles and appliances

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




History of hydroelectric
History of Hydroelectric

  • B.C. - Used by the Greeks to turn water wheels for grinding wheat into flour, more than 2,000 years ago

  • 1775 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers founded, with establishment of Chief Engineer for the Continental Army

  • 1880 - Michigan's Grand Rapids Electric Light and Power Company, generating electricity by dynamo, belted to a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory, lit up 16 brush-arc lamps. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

History of hydroelectric1
History of Hydroelectric

  • By 1940 - 40% of electrical generation was hydropower

  • Between 1921 and 1940 - conventional capacity in the U.S. tripled; almost tripled again between 1940 and 1980

  • Currently - about 10% of U.S. electricity comes from hydropower. hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

Turbine technologies
Turbine Technologies

  • Reaction

    • fully immersed in fluid

    • shape of blades produces rotation hydroelectric/hydro.ppt

Renewable energy chapter 18

Tidal Power Plant

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Rotary windmill
Rotary Windmill

Renewable energy chapter 18

Vertical Blades

Energy from wind
Energy from Wind

  • Production of electricity and hydrogen gas by wind farms is expected to increase

  • Western Europe currently leads in the development of wind power

  • Land used for wind farms also can be used for ranching or crops and most profits stay in local communities

    • North Dakota


  • Low Torque – Rapid Speed

    • good for electrical generation

  • High Torque – Slow Speed

    • good for pumping water

  • Small generator

    • low wind speeds

    • captures small amount of energy

  • Large generator

    • high wind speeds

    • may not turn at low speeds

Renewable energy chapter 18

Source: American Wind Energy Association

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Energy from biomass
Energy from Biomass

  • In the developing world, most people heat homes and cook by burning wood or charcoal

  • Plant materials and animal wastes also can be converted into biofuels,

    • Biogas

    • Liquid ethanol

    • Liquid methanol

  • Urban wastes can be burned in incinerators to produce electricity and heat

Renewable energy chapter 18

Types of Biomass Fuel

Renewable energy chapter 18


  • Fuels:

  • Ethanol

  • Renewable Diesel

  • Methanol

  • Hydrogen

  • Electricity

  • Heat

  • Products

  • Plastics

  • Foams

  • Solvents

  • Coatings

  • Chemical Intermediates

  • Phenolics

  • Adhesives

  • Fatty acids

  • Acetic Acid

  • Carbon black

  • Paints

  • Dyes, Pigments, and Ink

  • Detergents

  • Etc.



  • Biomass

  • Feedstock

  • Trees

  • Forest Residues

  • Grasses

  • Agricultural Crops

  • Agricultural Residues

  • Animal Wastes

  • Municipal Solid Waste

  • Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation

  • Enzymatic Fermentation

  • - Gas/liquid Fermentation

  • - Thermochemical Processes

  • - Gasification/Pyrolysis

  • - Combustion

  • - Co-firing

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy

  • Geothermal energy can be used to heat buildings and to produce electricity

  • Geothermal reservoirs can be depleted if heat is removed faster than natural processes renew it, but the potential supply is vast


  • Geothermal Heat Pumps

    • shallow ground energy

  • Direct-Use

    • hot water can be piped to facilities

  • Power Plants

    • steam and hot water drive turbines

      • dry steam plants

      • flash steam plants

      • binary cycle plants geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

Dry steam power plants
Dry Steam Power Plants

  • Hydrothermal fluids are primarily steam

    • Steam goes directly to turbine

    • No fossil fuels geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

Flash steam power plant
Flash Steam Power Plant

  • Fluids above 200 degrees Celsius

    • Fluid is sprayed into tank at lower pressure

    • Fluid rapidly vaporizes

    • Steam drives turbine geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

Binary cycle power plant
Binary Cycle Power Plant

  • Cooler water (below 200 degrees Celsius)

    • Hot thermal fluid and a second fluid pass through heat exchanger geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt


  • Clean Energy

    • one sixth of carbon dioxide vs. natural gas

    • very little if any nitrous oxide or sulfur compounds

  • Availability

    • 24 hours a day, 365 days a year

  • Homegrown

  • Renewable geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

Environmental effects
Environmental Effects

  • Only emission is steam

  • Salts and dissolved minerals reinjected

  • Some sludge produced

    • Mineral extraction

  • Little Visual Impact

    • Small acreage, no fuel storage facilities geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt


  • Hot geothermal fluid

  • Low mineral and gas content

  • Shallow aquifers

    • Producing and reinjecting the fluid

  • Private land

    • Simplifies permit process

  • Proximity to transmission lines geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt


  • Only tiny fraction is currently used

    • Dry hot rock heated by molten magma

    • Drill into rock and circulate water geothermal/GeothermalEnergy.ppt

Renewable energy chapter 18

Energy Efficiency

Solar Energy


Wind Power




Renewable energy chapter 18

Suggestions to make the transition to a more

sustainable energy future.