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Chapter 18 Renewable Energy
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Chapter 18 Renewable Energy

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  1. Chapter 18 Renewable Energy 18.1 Renewable Energy Today (2004) 18.2 Alternative Energy and Conservation p455-473 Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  2. Key terms • Renewable energy • Passive solar hearing • Active solar heating • Biomass fuel • Hydroelectric energy • Geothermal energy • Alternative energy • Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) • Fuel cell • Energy efficiency • Energy conservation Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  3. 18.1 renewable Energy Today • List 6 forms of renewable energy, and compare their advantages and disadvantages • Describe the differences between passive solar heating, active solar heating and photovoltaic energy • Describe the current sate of wind energy technology • Explain the differences in biomass fuel used between developed and developing nations • Describe how hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps work Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  4. Renewable Energy -today • Energy from sources that are constantly being formed • (wind, sun, water and Earth’s heat) • Europe planned to increase use by 2010 to reduce the impact on nonrenewable energy Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  5. Solar Energy- Power from the sun • Produces energy by nuclear fusion reaction in its core, only small part reaches Earth • All life's energy is directly or indirectly powered by the sun 2 types 1. passive 2. Active Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  6. PassiveSolar Heating • The use of the sun’s energy to heat something directly • Simplest form of energy • Sun hitting the window and heating a room • Building who use this form of heat must be well insulated with thick walls and floors to prevent heat loss at night • Building is designed based on how the sun shines during the day or seasons (windows) • (8 mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  7. Active Solar Heating • Energy from that sun that is gathered by collectors and used to heat water or to heat a building • More than 1 million homes in US use active solar energy to heat water (2004) • Most are found on roof tops • Liquid is heated by sun as it flows through the solar collectors, the hot liquid is then pumped through a heat exchanger, which heats water fro the building • About 8% of the energy used in the US is fused to heat water this type of energy could save $$ and energy • Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  8. Photovoltaic Cells • (FOHT oh vahl TAY ik) – convert sun’s energy into electricity • Invented more than 120 years ago • Used to power everything from calculators to space satiations • No moving parts, non polluting power • Only produce small amounts of energy • Have become more efficient and less expensive • More efficient in developing countries who need less energy • • (4 mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  9. Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  10. Wind Power- Cheap and Abundant • Energy from sun warms the Earth’s surface unevenly causes air masses to flow in the atmosphereaka wind • Converts the movement of wind into electric energy • Fastest growing energy source in the world • Turbines are cost effective and can be built in 3 months • (6 mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  11. Wind Farms • Large arrays of wind turbines • In California one wind farm can supply enough energy for 280,00 homes • Farmers are adding them to their land and selling the energy to local utility • Seen as future of energy but.. Difficult to transport the energy There is potential to produce hydrogen from water and then pipe that to cities for fuel Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  12. Biomass- Power from Living Things • Plant material, wood, manure, or any organic material • (fossil fuels are not biomass because they are nonrenewable) • Methane and Alcohol • Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  13. Methane- Biomass • Methane- is the result of bacteria decomposing organic waste, is burned to generate heat or electricity • China more than 6 million households use biogas digester to ferment manure and produce gas for used for heating and cooking • 2002 Britain’s first dung-fired power station started to produce electricity • Landfills in the US Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  14. Alcohol- Biomass • Liquid fuels, ethanol/ alcohol can be made by fermenting fruit or agricultural waste • Corn is used in the US • Cars and trucks can run on ethanol or gasohol, blend of gasoline and ethanol • Produces less air pollution than fossil fuels • (6mins) • (7mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  15. Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  16. Hydroelectricity- Power from Moving Water • Energy produced from moving water • 20% of worlds energy • Canada, US, Brazil, China, Russia and Norway • Large power plants have dam that is built across a river to hold back a reservoir of water the water gets released to turn a turbine generates electricity Advantages: • Expensive to build but inexpensive to run, no air pollution, last longer, flood control, drinking water, agriculture, industry and recreation Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  17. Hydroelectricity- Power from Moving Water Disadvantages- • Changes a river flow, reservoir floods, water below the dam is lowered, affect Salmon fisheries no longer swim up stream to spawn, human displacement due to flooding, dam failure, greenhouse gases from decomposing plant matter trapped in reservoirs Modern Trends • - US is done, Brazil, India and China still constructing, • micro-hydropower (no dam required) located on small streams, turbines float on the water, no longer blocking river, cheaper • Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  18. How does it work (2mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  19. Geothermal Energy- Power from the Earth • Water in the Earth is heated to generate electricity • Pump heated water or steam from rock formations and use the water or steam to power a turbine that generates electricity, water is returned to earth where it can be heated again • US is worlds largest producer, The Geysers in California and it produces energy for about 1.7 million homes, • Philippines, Iceland, Japan, Mexico, Italy and New Zealand • Must be managed carefully so it is not depleted Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  20. Geothermal Energy- Power from the Earth • Energy for Homes- uses stable underground temps to war and cool homes • More than 600,000 homes in the US are heated and cooled using Geothermal heat pumps • Temperature in the ground is consistent year round • In summer ground is cooler and in the winter the ground is warmer • Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  21. 18.2 Alternative Energy and Conservation • Describe 3 alternative energy technologies • ID 2 ways that hydrogen could be used a s a fuel source in the future • Explain the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation • Describe 2 forms of energy-efficient transportation • ID 3 ways that you can conserve energy in your daily life Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  22. 18.2 Alternative Energy and Conservation • Alternative Energy- energy sources that are still being developed, the source must be proven to be cost effective, environmental impacts must be acceptable, • Government usually is the ones who invest for research Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  23. Tidal Power • Once used to power mills thousand of years ago in France and Britain • Today- France, Russia, Canada • Works similar to a hydroelectric dam • As the tides rise water flows behind a dam and when the tides lower the water is trapped and used to run a turbine that will generate electricity • It is renewable and non polluting but cost of building and maintaining is high, only a few locations are suitable • Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  24. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation • Hawaii uses the temperature difference in the ocean to generate electricity- OTEC or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion • Warm surface water is used to boil sea water, boiling water turns to steam and turns the turbine runs an electric generator, the cold water will cool the steam so that the water can be used again Problem- the power required to pump the cold water from deep in the ocean uses 1/3 of t he energy produced, environmental impact is unknown (4mins) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  25. Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  26. Hydrogen- A Future Fuel Source? • Most abundant element in the universe • Can be burned as fuel • no pollutants – water is the only byproduct • Splitting of water or the use of plants to produce hydrogen Challenge- takes a lot of energy to produce, use wind or solar to produce energy to split water Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  27. Fuel Cell- • like a battery, produces electricity chemically, by combining hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air, water is byproduct • Can be natural gas, alcohol or gasoline • Space shuttles have internal combustion engines powered by fuel cells • By 2010 portable phones and games could be powered for fuel cells (??) Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  28. Energy Efficiency • 2 main ways to reduce energy use lifestyle changes and increase in energy efficiency • The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work • EF%= (Energy out/ energy in) X100 • Most of our devices are inefficient • More than 40% of all commercial energy used in US is wasted but require sacrifices or investments in new technologies Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  29. Efficient Transportation • Key is to develop transportation that is energy efficient and increase public transportation • In 2004 gas prices were still low • Hybrid Cars- small, efficient gasoline engine Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  30. Cogeneration • Production of 2 useful forms of energy from the same fuel source • Example: waste heat from an industrial furnace can power a steam turbine that produces electricity and then they can use the electricity or sell it Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  31. Energy Conservation • Saving energy • Cities and Towns Saving Energy- Osage, Iowa of 3,600 people, can save more $1 million each year • Conservation around the home- average home spends more than $1200 on energy bills each year, most of which the energy is wasted, poor windows, door, walls and roof, new windows could reduce your energy bill by 15% Chapter 18 renewable Energy

  32. Conservation in Daily Life • Walk or ride a bike • Carpool • Use fuel efficient autos • Energy star products • Recycle • Turn or unplug appliances when not at home Chapter 18 renewable Energy