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Clinically Relevant Functional Neuroanatomy 3: Working Memory and Executive Skills. Russell M. Bauer, Ph.D. University of Florida, USA Vivian Smith Summer Institute 28 June, 2006. From Memory to Executive Skills: The Anatomy of Working Memory. Who invented “working memory?.

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clinically relevant functional neuroanatomy 3 working memory and executive skills

Clinically Relevant Functional Neuroanatomy 3: Working Memory and Executive Skills

Russell M. Bauer, Ph.D.

University of Florida, USA

Vivian Smith Summer Institute

28 June, 2006

who invented working memory

Who invented “working memory?

a. Mark D’Esposito

Alan Baddeley

Monte Buchsbaum

Patricia Goldman-Rakic

William James

slide4

G.A. Miller

E. Galanter

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

K.H. Pribram

slide8

Episodic

Buffer

clinical techniques and methods
Clinical Techniques and Methods
  • Verbal
    • Memory Span (digits, consonants, words)
    • Free Recall
    • Short-term forgetting (Peterson/Peterson)
    • Memory Probe Techniques
    • Prose Recall
experimental techniques and methods
Experimental Techniques and Methods
  • Spatial delayed response
  • Oculomotor delayed response
  • Delayed matching-to-sample
  • Attentional set-shifting
  • N-back
slide11

Working memory and associative memory may be distinguished using the delayed response task

  • When PFC-lesioned monkey must remember which well is baited from trial to trial, performance is poor
  • When PFC-lesioned monkey must remember which symbol is baited from trial to trial, performance is good
slide20

A question to think about: why would you have spatially-sensitive neurons in preMOTOR cortex?

Smith & Jonides, 1999

slide21

Frontal and parietal neurons are linked systemically – note similar patterns of delay period response

two views about specificity in wm
Two views about specificity in WM
  • Domain-specificity(Goldman-Rakic, Ungerleider, Courtney)
    • Ventral prefrontal: object working memory
    • Dorsal prefrontal: spatial working memory
  • Process-specificity(Petrides, D’Esposito)
    • Ventral prefrontal: sequential organization and storage
    • Dorsal prefrontal: executive control and monitoring
slide25

Exec

+

Storage

Storage

Smith & Jonides 1999

medial wall activity in wm
Medial Wall Activity in WM
  • Primary activity in Pre-SMA and Caudal AC
  • Extensive connections with DLPFC
    • Pre-SMA: response selection and output preparation
    • Caudal AC: attention for action, response selection
slide30

D’Esposito, M., Zarahn, E., Balard, D., Shin, R.K., and Lease, J. (1998) Functional MRI studies of spatial and nonspatial working memory. Cogn. Brain Res. 7:1-13

executive functions
Executive Functions
  • Attention and inhibition
  • Task management/switching
  • Planning
  • Monitoring
  • Coding representations in WM for time/place of appearance
  • Response selection
frontal lobe cortex
Frontal Lobe Cortex
  • Functional subdivisions:
    • Lateral (4, 6, 8-10, 43-47)
    • Medial (6, 8-12, 24, 25, 32, 22)
    • Inferior (11-15, 25, 47)
  • Another division:
    • Motor (4)
    • Premotor (6, 8, 43, 44, 45)
    • Prefrontal (9-15, 46, 47)
slide36

Neuropsychological Manifestations of Frontal Lesions I

Frontal Operculum (44,45,47)

A) Left: Broca’s aphasia

B) Right: ‘expressive’ aprosodia

Superior Mesial (mesial 6, 24)

A) Left: akinetic mutism

B) Right: akinetic mutism

Bilateral lesions of mesial SMA (6) and anterior cingulate (24) produce more severe form of akinetic mutism

Tranel, 1992

slide37

Neuropsychological Manifestations of Frontal Lobe Lesions II

Inferior Mesial Region

A)Orbital Region(10, 11)

Lesions in this region produce disinhibition, altered social conduct, “acquired sociopathy”, and other disturbances due to impairment in fronto-limbic relationships

B)Basal Forebrain(posterior extension of inferior mesial region, including diagonal band of Broca, nucleus accumbens, septal nuclei, substantia innominata)

Lesions here produce prominent anterograde amnesia with confabulation (material specificity present, but relatively weak)

Tranel, 1992

slide38

Neuropsychological Manifestations of Frontal Lobe Lesions III

Lateral Prefrontal Region (8,9,46)

Lesions in this region produce impairment in a variety of “executive” skills that cut across domains. Some degree of material-specificity is present, but relatively weak.

A) Fluency: impaired verbal fluency (left) or design fluency (right)

B) Memory impairments: defective recency judgment, metamemory defects, difficulties in memory monitoring

C) Impaired abstract concept formation and hypothesis testing

D) Defective planning, motor sequencing

E) Defective cognitive judgement and estimation

Tranel, 1992

slide39

Phineas Gage

(1823-1861, accident in 1848)

slide40

Phineas Gage’s lesion reconstructed

(H. Damasio and R. Frank, 1992)

keys to understanding frontal lobe function
Keys to Understanding Frontal Lobe Function
  • Realize that it is as far away from the external world as any cortical region
  • Appreciate patterns of connectivity (you can tell a lot about someone by getting to know their friends)
  • Appreciate inhibitory/excitatory (modulatory) aspects in addition to idea of specialized information-processors
slide42

General Organization of Frontal cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-cortical loops

dorsolateral loop
Dorsolateral Loop
  • Critical for executive function
  • Damage produces
    • Inflexibility
    • Planning
    • Problem-solving
    • Goal-directed behavior
orbitofrontal loop
Orbitofrontal Loop
  • Involved in social and emotional functioning
  • Damage produces:
    • Disinhibition
    • Hyperactivity
    • Emotional lability
    • Aggressiveness
    • Reduce self-awareness
medial frontal cingulate loop
Medial Frontal/Cingulate Loop
  • Important in behavioral activation/intentional disorders
  • Damage results in
    • Akinetic mutism
    • Abulia
    • Impairments in spontaneous initiation of behavior
slide52

Motor Activation/Preparation

Heilman, Watson, & Valenstein, 2003

slide54

Selective Engagement

(Nadeau & Crosson, 1997)