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Clinically Relevant Functional Neuroanatomy 3: Working Memory and Executive Skills. Russell M. Bauer, Ph.D. University of Florida, USA Vivian Smith Summer Institute 28 June, 2006. From Memory to Executive Skills: The Anatomy of Working Memory. Who invented “working memory?.
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Russell M. Bauer, Ph.D.
University of Florida, USA
Vivian Smith Summer Institute
28 June, 2006
a. Mark D’Esposito
Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Working memory and associative memory may be distinguished using the delayed response task
A question to think about: why would you have spatially-sensitive neurons in preMOTOR cortex?
Smith & Jonides, 1999
Frontal and parietal neurons are linked systemically – note similar patterns of delay period response
Smith & Jonides 1999
D’Esposito, M., Zarahn, E., Balard, D., Shin, R.K., and Lease, J. (1998) Functional MRI studies of spatial and nonspatial working memory. Cogn. Brain Res. 7:1-13
PFC’s role in working memory may be as a buffer for activated long-term memories
Frontal Operculum (44,45,47)
A) Left: Broca’s aphasia
B) Right: ‘expressive’ aprosodia
Superior Mesial (mesial 6, 24)
A) Left: akinetic mutism
B) Right: akinetic mutism
Bilateral lesions of mesial SMA (6) and anterior cingulate (24) produce more severe form of akinetic mutism
Inferior Mesial Region
A)Orbital Region(10, 11)
Lesions in this region produce disinhibition, altered social conduct, “acquired sociopathy”, and other disturbances due to impairment in fronto-limbic relationships
B)Basal Forebrain(posterior extension of inferior mesial region, including diagonal band of Broca, nucleus accumbens, septal nuclei, substantia innominata)
Lesions here produce prominent anterograde amnesia with confabulation (material specificity present, but relatively weak)
Lateral Prefrontal Region (8,9,46)
Lesions in this region produce impairment in a variety of “executive” skills that cut across domains. Some degree of material-specificity is present, but relatively weak.
A) Fluency: impaired verbal fluency (left) or design fluency (right)
B) Memory impairments: defective recency judgment, metamemory defects, difficulties in memory monitoring
C) Impaired abstract concept formation and hypothesis testing
D) Defective planning, motor sequencing
E) Defective cognitive judgement and estimation
(1823-1861, accident in 1848)
(H. Damasio and R. Frank, 1992)
General Organization of Frontal cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-cortical loops
Heilman, Watson, & Valenstein, 2003
(Nadeau & Crosson, 1997)