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Chapter 13. Parole Conditions and Revocation. Introduction. Parole conditions determine the amount of freedom versus restriction a parolee has Accomplishment of the conditions of parole determine the success of the parolee and the ultimate goal of protection of society

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Parole Conditions and Revocation

  • Parole conditions determine the amount of freedom versus restriction a parolee has
  • Accomplishment of the conditions of parole determine the success of the parolee and the ultimate goal of protection of society
  • Parole revocation occurs if the parolee violates the conditions of parole
prisoner perspectives on getting out
Prisoner Perspectives on Getting Out
  • A California study of parolee perspectives found the reentry process a negative experience for about half of all parolees
  • An Iowa study of the transition from prison to a halfway house and then to parole found inadequate preparation for release that required the payment of rent, seeking employment, sustaining a job and paying rent
the field parole officer
The Field Parole Officer
  • Parole officers manage caseloads of 60-75 parolees (25-50 for specialized caseloads) and perform the following functions:
    • Carry out and enforce the conditions of parole
    • Make referrals to treatment programs
    • Conduct investigations and report violations
    • Provide appropriate information to victims
    • Share information with law enforcement
the officer s perspective
The Officer’s Perspective
  • Parole officers generally view parole more as an art than a science
  • Parole officers believe the most important features of a reentry program are:
    • Steady employment-the key element
    • Remaining drug free
    • Positive family and peer social support
    • Structure in daily activities
conditions of parole
Conditions of Parole
  • Standard conditions are mandatory for all parolees in a jurisdiction
    • The average number is 15
  • Special conditions are tailored to fit the needs of individual offenders
  • Critics of excessive conditions argue that they often create unrealistic expectations and are destined to result in failure
legal issues in parole conditions
Legal Issues in Parole Conditions
  • Boling v. Romer (1996) held that the condition requiring a parolee to submit DNA samples did not violate 4th or 5th Amendment protections
    • Parole is discretionary and can be conditional
  • Retroactive sex offender registration has been found to be constitutional
limited parolee rights
Limited Parolee Rights
  • Diminished rights, those held by parolees, are not as highly protected as similar rights enjoyed by nonoffenders
  • First Amendment Rights, a preferred right, can be limited to a probationer or parolee
    • “. . . Valid if they are reasonably necessary…”
  • Fourth Amendment Rights
    • Results of a search can be used for revocation but not for a new criminal conviction
    • The exclusionary rule does not apply
violating parole
Violating Parole
  • The parole violation process begins when the parole officer discovers a potential violation
  • Parole jurisdictions use both warrants and citations in the revocation process
  • A two stage process is not required in parole revocations and a conviction for a new offense constitutes sufficient evidence for revocation
The Supreme Court ruled in Young v. Harper (1997) that preparolees have the same due process rights as parolees
  • Parole violators were 95% male, over half were African-American, most were between 25-39 years of age
  • The most serious offense resulting in revocation was a violent crime (34%), property crime (33%), drug crime 23%) and a public order crime (13%)
Most rearrests of parolees occur within the first six months of release and within three years, 2/3rds are rearrested
  • In 2000, 35% of all state prison admissions were parole violators
  • Parolees originally convicted of property, drug and public order crimes were less likely to violate their parole than offenders who went to prison for crimes, weapons or immigration offenses
Of state parolees who were revoked:
    • 70% were arrested or convicted of a new offense
    • 22% absconded
    • 34% were returned for technical violations that included drugs, failure to report, possession of a firearm and failure to maintain employment
  • Federal parole violations included:
    • 60% technical
    • 30% new crimes
    • 10% other violations
The rate of parole violations has increased in recent years because:
    • The treatment perspective has been replaced by a control model
    • Parole officers spend less time with each parolee due to increased caseloads
    • More conditions imposed has resulted in more ways to violate
    • More drug use is detected due to new drug testing technology
    • With advanced electronic monitoring technology, more hardened offenders have been released
It is difficult to balance public expectations about whether parole revocation does or does not indicate parole success or failure
  • A parole absconder is an offender who, without prior permission, escapes or flees the jurisdiction of supervision
    • Researchers estimate the rate to be 11%-27%
  • The two categories of absconders are:
    • Type I Absconders: Benign
    • Type II Absconders: Menace to Society
parole effectiveness
Parole Effectiveness
  • Many parolees complete their term of supervision successfully and national success rates have remained the same since 1990
  • Recidivism, as a measure of parole success, depends on:
    • How recidivism is defined
    • The duration of time of the study
    • The size of the sample
predicting parole outcomes
Predicting Parole Outcomes
  • The variables shown to predict parole outcome are:
    • Gender
      • Male parolees return to prison at higher rates than women
    • Number of prior arrests
      • The lower the number of previous arrests, the greater the likelihood or parole success
    • Supervision versus no supervision
      • While studies vary in conclusion, success is increased when paired with treatment and reentry assistance