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Why are they called Essential? PowerPoint Presentation
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Why are they called Essential?

Why are they called Essential?

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Why are they called Essential?

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  1. Why are they called Essential? • EFAs were given the name “essential” when researchers discovered their importance for normal growth and development in young children • The body manufactures most of the fats we need, including cholesterol, saturated fats, and unsaturated fats • The body cannot manufacture essential fats; they must be consumed in the diet • From diet or purified supplements • National surveys show that Americans greatly underconsume essential fats, leading to EFA deficiency. Burr, et al. J Biol Chem 1929. Connor WE, et al. Nutr Rev 1992. Spector AA, Lipid Metabolism: EFAs, in Biochem Phys Aspects Hum Nutr, Stipanuk MH, 2000

  2. History • 1752–1784: First reports of using fish oil for human health were from Samuel Kay, MD, at the Manchester Infirmary. • He observed that cod liver oil improved bone and joint health • 1929: It is discovered that specific fatty acids are necessary for survival in laboratory animals • Evidence emerges that suggests fish contains specific health- promoting fatty acids • In Norway, there was a shift towards less heart disease and greater longevity when Norwegians were forced to eat more fish and less meat and animal fats during the 2nd World war • Scientists noted that Inuit Eskimos in Greenland had better heart health and greater longevity when compared to people in Denmark, even though the Eskimos ate a high fat diet • The Eskimos were eating an omega-3 rich diet • 2004—FDA states “Supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.” 1. Samuel Kay, MD and the Manchester Infirmary. 2. Burr GO and Burr MM. J Biol Chem 1929;82:345–367. 4. Dyerberg J, Bang HO. Lancet 1979;2:433–435.

  3. Sources of EFAs Omega-3 • EPA and DHA are found primarily in oily cold-water fish such as herring, tuna, sardines, anchovies, salmon, and cod (Fish form) • ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) is found primarily in flaxseed oils, certain vegetable oils, and some green leafy vegetables (Plant form) • ALA is not a reliable source of EPA and DHA for humans Pawlosky RJ, et al. AJCN 2003; Davis BC, et al. AJCN 2003. Omega-6 • Linoleic acid is found primarily in seeds, nuts, grains, and legumes, and is heavily present in our diet as vegetable oils (e.g. corn oil) and seed oils (e.g. sunflower oil) What about Omega-9? Omega-9 is an important, but not essential fatty acid. It naturally occurs in small amounts in fish oil and borage oils.

  4. Cell Membrane – Lipid Bilayer Omega-3 fats are structural components of every cell and organelle

  5. Fat Food Choices – Influence on Health • EPA and DHA are structural components of every cell membrane • Dietary fat determines physiologic state

  6. Cellular Structure Supported by EFAs 7

  7. Striking the Right Balance • Similar metabolism of omega-3 and omega-6 fats causes competition between them for storage space within cell membranes • Consuming too little omega-3 allows for an abundant production of omega-6 eicosanoids; this leads to swelling, inflexibility, and compromised tissue functioning • With a high omega-6 to omega-3 ratio, the progression to adverse health begins, leading to greater risk for chronic health conditions, early aging, and more • Increasing intake of omega-3s can have significant health benefits

  8. EPA & DHA work together EPA and DHA occur together in foods, they work together in the body, they help balance effects of high omega-6 in the diet, and they contribute unique benefits EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) • Heart • Supports healthful lipid levels • Maintains smooth blood vessels • Promotes fit heart function with aging • Joints • Supports joint flexibility • Reduces swelling • Immune • Promotes healthy cell functioning • Strengthens immune response • Fitness • Supports healthy metabolism DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) • Brain • Improves mood & behavior • Supports healthy nervous system • Enhances memory, clear thinking • Eyes • Essential for good eye health • Slows decline of vision • Mother and Child • Essential for infant brain and vision • Promotes healthy delivery

  9. Metabolic Syndrome “X” Insulin resistance High triglyceride levels High blood pressure Low HDL and High LDL cholesterol Excess blood clotting > Waist circumference > 40 inches in men > 35 inches in women Fish Oil Improves insulin function Lowers triglycerides (30%) Lowers Blood Pressure (slightly) HDL; large buoyant LDL Improves blood flow and tissue perfusion Promotes fat loss The “X” Factor X = omega-6 :omega-3

  10. Nutrition and Genetics are Interconnected Omega-3 Fats are needed for • Turning DNA On and Off • Complete Resolution of Chronic Inflammation

  11. Newly Discovered Lipid Mediators • EPA and DHA= Resolvins and Protectins • These mediators have anti-inflammatory and proresolution properties, thereby: • Protecting organs from collateral damage • Stimulating the clearance of inflammatory debris • Promoting mucosal antimicrobial defense Serhan C. Nature Immunology 2008. Omega-3 Fish Oil: Applications and Emerging Research 12

  12. Tissue Regeneration “This report is the first to show that resolution of inflammation by a naturally occurring endogenous lipid mediator results in complete regeneration of pathologically lost tissues, including bone.” Resolvin E1 regulates inflammation at the cellular and tissue level and restores tissue homeostasis in vivo. J Immunol 2007;179:7021–7029. Omega-3 Fish Oil: Applications and Emerging Research 13

  13. Essential Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  14. NORDIC NATURALS’ Fish Oil Processing

  15. Absorption - designed to digest triglycerides

  16. Third-Party Test Results For Purity and Freshness Nordic Naturals Retail Line Heavy Metals*** Peroxide Value* Totox** Dioxins**** PCBs***** Product Arctic Cod Liver Oil <10 ppb 0.40 mEq/kg 7.90 mEq/kg <0.5 ppt <1.0 ppt Children's DHA 0.54 mEq/kg 6.7 mEq/kg <10 ppb <0.5 ppt <1.0 ppt DHA 0.90 mEq/kg 13.60 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt EPA 0.30 mEq/kg 5.00 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt Omega-3 0.60 mEq/kg 16.80 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt Ultimate Omega 0.94 mEq/kg 7.90 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt Complete Omega-3.6.9 0.75 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt 17.06 mEq/kg Omega Woman 2.00 mEq/kg 19.00 mEq/kg <10 ppb <1.0 ppt <1.0 ppt * Peroxide—European Pharmacopoeia and Norwegian Medicinal Standard limit: 10 mEq/kg ** Totox (Total Oxidation)—CRN (Council for Responsible Nutrition) limit: 26 mEq/kg ***Heavy Metals—Not detectable down to 10 ppb (particles per billion). European Pharmacopoeia limit: 100 ppb **** Dioxins—Not detectable down to 0.5 ppt (particles per trillion). European Pharmacopoeia limit: 2 ppt***** PCBs—Not detectable down to 0.5 ppt (particles per trillion). European Pharmacopoeia limit: 2 ppt All tests are performed by Third-Party Laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Norway.

  17. Simple Dosing Recommendations

  18. Fish Oil Myths and Facts • Myth: Fish Oil increases the risk of bleeding. • Fact: Experts are confident that omega-3 fatty acids in doses of 1–4 grams per day DO NOT increase the risk of bleeding. • Myth: Enteric Coating and Emulsification improves fish oil absorption. • Fact: Enteric Coating is a technique used to mask the fishy taste of low quality oils. • Myth: Heat causes excess oxidative damage. • Fact: Heat itself does not cause the oxidation—it only affects the rate of oxidation. Rancidity is avoided by manufacturing (a) in a vacuum, (b) in a nitrogen-rich, oxygen-free environment, and (c) in the absence of free radical catalysts such as iron and copper.

  19. Sustainability Fish oil nutritional supplements represent no more than 2 to 3% of the total global fishing industry. Non-endangered • Sardines and Anchovies • Arctic Cod (exclusive raw material) Holistic Primary Care 2006;7(4) Worm, B. Fisheries should concentrate on pelagic species (anchovies and sardines).Fishupdate;Dec, 2006.

  20. Website Dedicated to Fish Oil Research • Research abstracts • Published studies • Clinical developments • Easy to use – powerful search feature • FREE

  21. Summary • Omega-3s, lacking in most diets, critical to everyone’s health • Fish oil is nature’s most powerful anti-inflammatory • Fish oil: broad-reaching benefits • Fish oil: the missing link to Syndrome X • Fish oil needs to be in the same natural triglyceride form as fresh fish • Nordic Naturals: the leader in Quality, Science, and Sustainability Omega-3 Fish Oil: Applications and Emerging Research 23

  22. Thank You!Stuart TomcEducatorNordic Naturalsemail: VoiceMail: 800.662.2544 x316 Cell: 773.914.9338Disclaimer: This information is provided by Nordic Naturals, Inc. for educational purposes only. Current and peer-reviewed research is cited.It is not intended as medical advice of any kind.The educational information in this document is not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any disease, nor has this document been reviewed or approved by the FDA.