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The Civil War. Chapter 21 Pgs. 290 - 309. 21.1 Introduction. The states that separated from the Union were renamed the Confederate States of America North –Union Army South- Confederate Army. 21.2 Preparing for the War. Abraham Lincoln- president of the United States

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the civil war

The Civil War

Chapter 21

Pgs. 290 - 309

21 1 introduction
21.1 Introduction
  • The states that separated from the Union were renamed the Confederate States of America
  • North –Union Army
  • South- Confederate Army
21 2 preparing for the war
21.2 Preparing for the War
  • Abraham Lincoln- president of the United States
  • Jefferson Davis- president of the Confederacy
  • Strengths:
    • Bigger Population
    • More Manufacturing (making of guns)
    • Railroad (transportation to the war)
    • Banks and Money
  • Weakness:
    • No military leadership
  • Strengths:
    • Defensive War (North had to travel and fight in the South) “Home Field Advantage”
    • Military Leadership (War Generals from previous wars moved South after war was over)
  • Weaknesses:
    • Lack of Money
    • Few Factories for Manufacturing
    • No ways to transport war related items
abraham lincoln vs jefferson davis
Abraham Lincoln vs. Jefferson Davis
  • North’s greatest advantage was Abraham Lincoln
  • Lincoln grew up uneducated, but learned through reading and became a lawyer and great leader
  • Davis grew up on a plantation and went to military school and then joined the army
  • What were the states renamed that separated from the Union?
  • Who was the president of the US at the time of the Civil War?
  • Who was president of the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War?
  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Union Army?
  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Confederate Army?
  • What was the North’s greatest advantage in the war?
21 3 bull run a great awakening
21.3 Bull Run: A Great Awakening
  • Anaconda Plan: Lincoln decided to attack the South from the outside and crush it in the middle with a 3 part plan:
    • Surround the South and cut off ports
    • Divide the Confederate States into sections
    • Capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Southern States
21 3 continued
21.3 Continued…

Rose Greenhow’s Dilemma:

  • She worked in Washington and sent messages to the South of what the North was planning on doing in the war

The Battle of Bull Run:

  • South knew that the North was coming to Richmond so they hid out in the city of Manassas
  • When the North approached a creek named Bull Run the South was ready for battle
  • South surprisingly won the battle and some respect from the North
woman support the war
Woman Support the War:
  • Woman began to work jobs their husbands worked
  • Woman were involved in the war: Messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers and spies
  • Dorothea Dix created a group of female nurses to help in the war
  • Clara Barton created the Red Cross (helped wounded soldiers on the battle field)
21 4 antietam a bloody affair
21.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair

The Union Blockade:

  • North blocked all ports in the South
  • South asked Britain for help and refused

Dividing the Confederacy:

  • Admiral Farragut took 46 ships down the Mississippi River to New Orleans and took over the area
  • General Ulysses S. Grant won battles in Kentucky and Tennessee

Attacking Richmond:

  • General McClellan (Head of the Union Army) went to take over Richmond and again the South won the battle
21 4 continued
21.4 Continued…

The Battle of Antietam:

  • General Robert E. Lee took confederate troops into the North to fight in Maryland
  • McClellan pushed Lee back to the South
  • The North won the battle, but both sides lost many men in the battle

The New Realities of War:

  • New technology and better weapons made it easier to kill your enemies
  • Medical Care was not good
  • More people died of their wounds because of unclean conditions
21 5 gettysburg a turning point
21.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point

The Emancipation Proclamation:

  • Lincoln created the Emancipation Proclamation: Ended Slavery in America

The Draft:

  • North and South ran out of volunteers so they forced men to join their army

The Battle of Gettysburg:

  • Armies met in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  • The Armies fought back and forth, the Union pushed the Confederate Armies back to the south (last time the Confederate Armies moved North)
21 5 continued
21.5 Continued…

Opposition on the Union Home Front:

  • In the North people started protesting the war and feeling sorry for the South
  • Others started killing the Union soldiers

Draft Riots:

  • Individuals were upset about the draft so they started killing African Americans because they believed they were the reason for the war

Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address:

  • Lincoln spoke in a cemetery and convinced the Union to stay with the war and continue the fight
  • What was the plan Lincoln used to try and beat the South?
  • Who worked in Washington as a spy for the South?
  • What famous battle did the South win because of their inside info?
  • Who created the Red Cross?
  • What made winning the war easier?
  • How did most people die in the war?
  • What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
  • What were the draft riots?
  • What happened during the Gettysburg Address?
21 6 vicksburg a besieged city
21.6 Vicksburg: A Besieged City

The Merrimac and the Monitor:

  • The North and South both created iron-clad ships and they moved forward in war improvements

Control of the Mississippi:

  • The Union controlled both ends of the Mississippi and the South could not use it to move supplies and troops
21 6 continued
21.6 Continued…


  • Grant brought an army to Vicksburg so the Union could control all of the Mississippi
  • City was hard to fight because was on hillsides
  • People in Vicksburg dug tunnels and lived underground
  • Ate horses, mules, bread of corn, and peas
  • Were starving so surrendered
  • The Union had split the South in ½

Problems on the Confederate Home Front:

  • The South was starving because there was no money or food
  • Many Confederate soldiers left the army to help their starving families
21 7 fort wagner african americans join the war
21.7 Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War
  • The Union enlisted African Americans in the Army and Navy

The Massachusetts 54th Regiment:

  • The First African American troops
  • They were first paid ½ the pay of white soldiers
  • Protested and received equal pay

African Americans at War:

  • They fought with bravery and gained respect from whites
  • They fought to end slavery
21 8 appomattox
21.8 Appomattox

Grant Takes Charge:

  • McClellan was not doing his job so Lincoln got rid of him and placed Grant in charge

On to Richmond:

  • Both sides fought and the Union army lost almost as many men as the entire Confederate Army
  • The North received more men and the South could not

Total War:

  • Grant believed that when you fight you kill and destroy everything
  • While Grant was fighting he sent Sheridan to take more troops to Georgia to destroy all of the Confederate Armies resources
21 8 continued
21.8 Continued…

The Reelection of Lincoln:

  • Lincoln was running against McClellan for president
  • McClellan wanted to end war and Lincoln wanted to continue it
  • McClellan would have won but when Sheridan took over Georgia, it brought hope to the North and Lincoln won the presidency

Sherman’s March through Georgia:

  • Sherman’s troops destroyed everything in Georgia that was of value to Southerners
  • Houses, fields, animals
21 8 continued21
21.8 Continued…

The End at Appomattox:

  • The Union and Confederate Armies fought for 9 months outside of Richmond and the North finally broke through to the capital
  • Grants troops surrounded Lee’s Army

A Noble Surrender:

  • General Lee surrendered to Grant and these were the terms:
    • Soldiers were allowed to go back home unharmed
    • They could keep their mules and horses for plowing
    • They could keep their guns and swords
    • They were to be given food to eat
the cost of war
The Cost of War:
  • Billions of dollars
  • Almost every family in the U.S lost a love one
  • 620,000 dead soldiers (both sides)
  • Thousands of others injured
  • The South was devastated
  • Why was the battle at Vicksburg difficult to fight in?
  • What problems were Confederates facing on the home front?
  • Who were the Massachusetts 54th Regiment?
  • Why did African Americans volunteer to fight in the war?
  • Who replaced McClellan when he was not doing his job?
  • Why did Lincoln win the reelection?
  • What terms were agreed upon when General Lee surrendered to Grant?
  • What was the final cost of the Civil War?