EARLY AMERICANS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  2. First Americans from Asia ca. 40,000 BC walked across land bridge, Beringia, covered by thick ice nomadic hunters (mammoth, bison, giant beaver, caribou and wooly rhino)

  3. Early Americans 15,000 Years Ago

  4. First Americans Discovered Clovis Man (Clovis, New Mexico) bones, found chipped stones called Clovis Points, dates 11,000 BC Monte Verde - Chile, S. America tools, bones, campsite, 12,000 BC. Kennewick Man (Kennewick, Washington) skull found by students, Caucasian, 9,000 years

  5. 7,000 BC – 5,000 BC Farming began- “The Three Sisters” = squash, beans, maize (corn) Farming led to large populations, cities, social classes, government, art, large buildings (pyramids) Agriculture Revolution in the Americas

  6. Early Native North Americans Eskimo/Inuit – Alaska/Canada whale, walrus, seal, fish, etc. -Inuit means “the People” Pacific Northwest Natives - Chinook, Nez Perce, Shoshone -wooden houses - ate well- deer, salmon, elk, bear, seal, beaver -Totem poles- family history -Potlatch (party)- tribe member gives wealth

  7. Potlatch

  8. Southwest Natives The Anasazi- “Ancient Ones” lived in 4 Corners, built in cliffs -“The Basketmakers” - pottery and baskets -“Kokopelli”- flute-playing spirit, fertility to women & crops The Hopi- peaceful (AZ/NM) - lived in pueblos- apartment buildings of stone & baked clay, no doors on ground -farmed corn The Apache- war-like, fought, stole, torture

  9. Northeastern Natives Iroquois lived in “long houses” (100 ft. long) made of wood and bark w/ 4 or 5 families -hunted (deer, bear, and rabbit), farmed 3 sisters -united Northeast tribes in a confederation to stop fighting w/ each other

  10. Mississippi & Ohio River Valleys Adena and Hopewell built large mounds filled with objects -The Great Serpent Mound in Ohio The Mississippians built Cahokia ca. 1200 AD, 60 mounds, 100 ft. pyramid mound & about 10,000 people The Mound Builders

  11. Cahokia

  12. The Cherokee 1 of largest of Native American tribes (NC, SC, TN, GA, AL) Farmers/hunters, Many Cherokee forced to Oklahoma Territory in the 1800’s on the Trail of Tears. Others- Seminole, Creek, Choctaw, Catawba, Alabama Southeastern Natives

  13. Plains Indians

  14. Sioux, Mandan, Crow, Blackfeet, Comanche, Cheyenne Lived in central U. S. (the Great Plains) Nomadic hunters- followed bison, used all parts of the bison many lived in teepees Fought each other over hunting grounds Plains Natives

  15. Coup stick

  16. Olmec (1300-400BC) Mexico “Mother Culture” astronomy, math, calendars, hieroglyphic writing famous for “Big Stone Heads”- to honor leaders, 6’-8’ tall weighed several tons Great Pyramid- 100’ tall religious tomb. nature gods- the jaguar human sacrifice The Early Meso-American Civilizations

  17. (1000BC–600AD) SW Mexico Built city Monte Alban, pop. of 25,000 good farming, pyramids, palaces, calendars, hieroglyphic writing Zapotec

  18. (900 – 200 BC) Andes Mountains “mother culture” for S. America built a great city with pyramid temples, large mounds and artwork Chavin

  19. (200 BC – 600 AD) southern Peru near coastal desert underground irrigation systems, woven blankets, rugs, pottery Nazca Lines- giant drawings out in the desert Nazca

  20. Nazca astronaut or alien?

  21. (100–700 AD) northern Peru large farms w/ irrigation-corn, potatoes, beans, fish, duck, deer, crawfish gold/silver, made jewelry pottery practiced human sacrifice and decapitation Moche sun temple pyramid Moche

  22. Moche sacrifice

  23. Great Mesoamerican Civilizations

  24. Yucatan Peninsula of Central America Writing Calendar Astronomy Pyramids Math- zero THE MAYA (200-900 AD)

  25. Maya Society Each city- a separate state w/ its own king Maya Feudalism • Rulers- power thru heredity, like a god • Nobles- wealthy, ran the towns • Lower class- farmers, artisans, merchants • slaves- were prisoners of war used for labor and sacrifice

  26. Agriculture good farmers Canals & underground reservoirs called “cenotes” for irrigation & water maize, beans, squash, cacao, chilies & bananas fermented drink- lots of it!

  27. over 100 cities Tikal Copan Chichen Itza great pyramids, palaces, ball courts Pyramid IV at Tikal- tallest building in the Americas until 1903. Mayan Cities

  28. Mayan ball court

  29. Polytheistic Gods- sun, rain, wind, corn, war, death, moon, the directions Self-Sacrifice - cutting arms, legs, chests Human sacrifice Kings/Queens- blood from tongue & privates Mayan Religion

  30. End of the Maya walked away from cities- No one knows why??? Wars, food shortage, overpopulation, over-farming, kings lost power

  31. Central Mexico Tula- great city, Tula statues Great Warriors- blood & human sacrifice The “Wall of Heads”- set the heads of victims in the center of the city. Tula - sacked TOLTEC (900-1200 AD)

  32. Legend of Quetzalcoatl Feathered-serpent god, god of wind & Venus Toltec king wanted peace and took the name Quetzalcoatl- was overthrown, cast out to sea on a raft Quetzalcoatl would return & bring peace to the empire, legend adopted by Aztec

  33. Central Mexico Began as nomads eating rats & snakes, poor but tough Tenochtitlan- capital city, named after chief Tenoch temples & palaces, 200,000 pop. Two calendars, math advances, hieroglyphic writing THE AZTEC (1200–1500 AD)

  34. Aztec Farming Chinampas – floating islands built for farming Beans, corn, chilies, squash, tomatoes

  35. Aztec Society