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Communications Efficiency. Sandeep K. Singhal, Ph.D Director, Windows Networking Microsoft Corporation. Agenda. Trends in enterprise networking Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 Collaboration with MoD Looking into the future Summary. Trends in Enterprise Networking.

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communications efficiency

Communications Efficiency

Sandeep K. Singhal, Ph.D

Director, Windows Networking

Microsoft Corporation

agenda
Agenda
  • Trends in enterprise networking
  • Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
  • Collaboration with MoD
  • Looking into the future
  • Summary
windows vista and windows server 2008 networking stack architecture
Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008:Networking Stack Architecture

Winsock

User Mode

Kernel Mode

AFD

TDI Clients

WSK Clients

TDI

WSK

TDX

Next-Generation TCP/IP Stack (tcpip.sys)

RAW

TCP

UDP

Windows Filtering Platform

IPv4

IPv6

802.3

WLAN

Loop-back

IPv4 Tunnel

1394

IPv6 Tunnel

NDIS

key networking innovations
Key Networking Innovations
  • Network performance
  • Connectivity
  • Security
  • PC health management
  • Scalability
  • Enterprise quality of service (eQoS)
  • Peer-to-peer and ad-hoc collaboration
key networking innovations1
Key Networking Innovations
  • Network performance
  • Connectivity
  • Security
  • PC health management
  • Scalability
  • Enterprise quality of service (eQoS)
  • Peer-to-peer and ad-hoc collaboration
the performance challenge
The Performance Challenge
  • Network stack implementations limited by
    • Static default configurations picked to match most common environments
    • Protocols designed more than a decade ago
  • Poor network performance under
    • High latency (e.g., access to resources across the continent)
    • High bandwidth (e.g., fiber to the home [FTTH])
    • Losses (e.g., WLAN, WWAN, satellite networks)
  • Network performance is key determinant of performance of most applications
the receive window limitation
The Receive Window Limitation

North America

Satellite

IntercontinentalFiber

autotuning receive window
Autotuning Receive Window

Problem: Network performance limited on high-latency WAN (such as satellite or FTTH)

TCP default receive window limits throughput to 5Mbps on a 100ms (coast to coast) connection

Even lower throughput on higher latency like inter-continent or satellite

Solution: Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 adjust TCP Receive Window for each connection over time

Window scaling (RFC 1323) enabled by default with scale factor of 8

Estimates bandwidth delay product and application read-rate

Impact: Applications see faster uploads/downloads

SMB file copy between Redmond and Australia improved 10x

Backup between Bay area and Tukwila data center improved 40x

Benefit varies depending on spare capacity

slide15

Application Performance

with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

Throughput (Mbps)

microsoft com and receive window auto tuning
Microsoft.com and Receive Window Auto-Tuning
  • Replicating data between Redmond and Bay Area
    • 1 Gbps dedicated connectivity
  • Default configurations
  • On Windows Server 2003 SP1:
    • 100Mbps NICs, 10Mbps throughput
  • On Windows Vista:
    • 100Mbps NICs, 80Mbps throughput
    • 1000Mbps NICs, 400Mbps throughput (memory to memory copy)
      • File copy from disk to disk limited to 250Mbps due to disk bottleneck

40X

protocol limitations dealing with high bandwidth
Protocol Limitations: Dealing with High Bandwidth

Scenario: Replication between geographically distributed data centers connected by gigabit links

TCP protocols cuts down sending rate dramatically on losses and increases sending rate slowly

< 1 in 83000 packet loss rate to fully occupy a 1Gbps/100ms link

Solution: Compound TCP utilizes loss and delay information to rapidly ramp up sending rate without causing losses

Fairness is important: <10% impact on existing TCP connections

Enabled by default on Windows Server 2008 (only send side support needed)

Impact: Faster data center replication

Microsoft.com replication time reduced by half

sample ctcp performance
Sample CTCP Performance
  • TCP data transfer using Compound-TCP (blue) and vanilla TCP (red) between Bay Area, CA and Tukwila, WA data centers
protocol limitations dealing with random losses
Protocol Limitations: Dealing with Random Losses

Scenario: Wireless networks like GPRS, UMTS, WLAN

Losses interpreted by TCP as indication of congestion

Link layer recovery exacerbates problem as TCP does recovery at its own layer (spurious retransmissions)

Large change in round trip times causes fatal TCP connectivity loss

Solution:

Detect spurious retransmissions using Forward Retransmission Timeout Recovery (FRTO) and Delayed Selective Acknowledgement (DSACK) mechanisms (IETF based)

Avoid unnecessary retransmission and also reduction in sending rate

RTT resiliency mechanism

Impact: Improved wireless performance

10-30% throughput improvement in GPRS scenarios

key networking innovations2
Key Networking Innovations
  • Network performance
  • Connectivity
  • Security
  • PC health management
  • Scalability
  • Enterprise quality of service (eQoS)
  • Peer-to-peer and ad-hoc collaboration
drivers for ipv6
Drivers for IPv6

Seamless Application Development platform

End-to-end Authentication

Simplified Ad-hoc Network support

Scalable Network Connectivity

ipv6 ready real and required with windows vista and windows server 2008
IPv6:Ready, Realand Required with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

Ready

Enabled by defaultand preferred on Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

All out-of-box applications, services, and interfaces support IPv6(dual stack or native)

IPv6 is beingdeeply integrated across our entire product line

Real

Usable on existing IPv4 networks

Transition technologies (ISATAP, 6to4, Teredo) enable low-cost, automatic IPv6 deployment

Required

Scenarios such as Windows Meeting Space and Remote Assistance have unique value in IPv6 networks

ipv6 migration strategy
IPv6 Migration Strategy

Baseline Architecture

Planning, Training, Testing

Infrastructure Migration

Application Migration

Operations Migration

Security

Target Architecture

ipv6 migration approach
IPv6 Migration Approach

Operations Migration

Application Migration

Infrastructure Migration

  • Commercial Apps
  • Line of Business Apps
  • Network Management
  • Infrastructure Services
  • Security
  • Tunneling
  • Dual Stack
  • Native v6
  • Action Items:
  • Host monitoring
  • Applicationconfiguration
  • License management
  • Patch update
  • Action Items:
  • Inventory & Assess Impact
  • Application porting
  • Application deployment
  • Proxy for applications that can’t migrate
  • Action Items:
  • Upgrade to Windows Vista
  • Ensure DNS supports IPv6
  • Deploy ISATAP server or native addressing