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# Last Time…. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Last Time…. Operators Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operators Increment/Decrement Operators Relational Operators Logical Operators Expression Statements Introduction to Library Functions. Precedence of Operators. Evaluation the following Expressions: a) 4 + 7 * 6 / 3 – 5

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Last Time….
• Operators
• Arithmetic Operators
• Assignment Operators
• Increment/Decrement Operators
• Relational Operators
• Logical Operators
• Expression
• Statements
• Introduction to Library Functions
Precedence of Operators

Evaluation the following Expressions:

a) 4 + 7 * 6 / 3 – 5

b) ++ 23 / - 3 + 3 --

Defining constants
• const Qualifier
• #define directive
Automatic Type Conversion and Casts

int count = 100;

float avgWeight = 70F;

double totalWeight = count * avgWeight;

cout<<“The total weight in this room = ”<

Automatic Type Conversion , Compiler handles the type conversion

Static Casts

int result;

float a = 4.0;

result = a * 3.56;

<>

How do you cast to another type?

>>Up-Cast

>>Down-Cast

Implicit Type Conversion
• When an operator’s operands are of different data types, C++ will automatically convert them to the same data type.
• When a value is converted to a higher data type, it is said to be prompted.
• To demote a value means to convert it to a lower data type.
Two Rules

Rule 1: When an operator works with two values of different values of different data types, the lower-ranking value is prompted to the type of the higher-ranking value.

Rule 2: When the final value of and expression is assigned to a variable, it will be converted to the data type of that variable.

Explicit Type Conversion

[A type cast expression lets you manually promote or demote a value in the same way that automatic conversion takes place.]

Syntax

A variable or Literal value

static_cast (Value)

Data Type you wish to convert it to

How would you prevent the INTEGER DIVISION?

int main()

{

int books, months;

double booksPerMonth;

cout<<“How many books do you plan to read?”

cin>>books;

cout<<“How many month will it take you to read them?”

cin>>months;

booksPerMonth = books/months;

cout<<“That is”<

system(“pause”);

return 0;

}

Quiz _1 : Implement an Pseudocode

Write a program that implements the following algorithm.

Start

Read the total hours the employee has worked, TotalHours

Read the hourly rate of pay for the employee, HourlyRate

GrossSalary= TotalHours* HourlyRate

Tax = GrossSalary * 0.1

NetSalary = GrossSalary - Tax

Display NetSalary

Stop

Quiz _2:Currency

[Write a program that will convert U.S. dollar amounts to Japanese yen and to euros. The conversion factors to use are 1dollar = 108.5 yen and 1 dollar = 0.8218 euros]

### Library Functions

Yared Semu

April 2012

Library Functions
• In C++, we make extensive use of library functions to accomplish tasks.
• Mathematical Functions
• IO Manipulators
Mathematical Functions

The mathematical functions allow us to do mathematical operations.

These operations include:

• raising a number to a certain power,
• computing the square root of a number,
• computing the cosine of an angle, etc... .

These functions are defined in the header file math.h (or cmath in standard C++).

#include

Mathematical Functions …

sqrt is the name of the function that performs the square root operation. This function takes one argument of type double and returns a result of type double.

Multiple Arguments
• When a function takes multiple arguments, they are separated by commas inside the parenthesis.
• This statement computes 3 raised to 4.
Mathematical Functions …

The function that computes the power of two numbers is :

More examples of mathematical functions are:

IO Manipulators
• IO Manipulators are operators used with the insertion operator (<<) to modify or manipulate the way data is displayed.
• Other IO manipulators, which take arguments, are defined in the iomanip.h(or iomanipin standard C++) header file.

#include

IO Manipulators(Example)

What is the output of this program?

Example- IO Manipulators
• Write a program that displays the output show below.