Properties of acids and bases
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Properties of Acids and Bases. Acids taste sour, will change the color of an acid base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution. Properties of Acids and Bases.

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Properties of acids and bases
Properties of Acids and Bases

Acids taste sour, will change the color of an acid base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.


Properties of acids and bases1
Properties of Acids and Bases

Bases taste bitter, feel slippery, will change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.


Arrhenius acids and bases
Arrhenius Acids and Bases

Arrhenius acids are compounds that ionize to yield hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution.


Arrhenius acids and bases1
Arrhenius Acids and Bases

An Arrhenius base is a compound that ionizes to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution.


Bronsted lowry acids and bases
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

The Bronsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor and a base as a hydrogen-ion acceptor.


Bronsted lowry acids and bases1
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

A conjugate acid is the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.

A conjugate base is the particle formed when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion.


Bronsted lowry acids and bases2
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

A conjugate acid-base pair consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion.


Bronsted lowry acids and bases3
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases


Bronsted lowry acids and bases4
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion becomes a positively charged hydronium ion (H3O+).

A substance that can act as both an acid and a base is said to be amphoteric.


Lewis acids and bases
Lewis Acids and Bases

A Lewis acid is a substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.

A Lewis base is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.




Ion product constant for water
Ion Product Constant for Water

The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is called the ion-product constant for water (Kw).


Ion product constant for water1
Ion Product Constant for Water

If [H+] = [OH-], then the solution is neutral.

If [H+] > [OH-], then the solution is acidic.

If [H+] < [OH-], then the solution is basic.


The ph concept
The pH Concept

In a neutral solution, the [H+] = 1 x 10-7M. The pH of a neutral solution is 7.


The ph concept1
The pH Concept

If [H+] = [OH-], then the pH = 7.

If [H+] > [OH-], then the pH < 7.

If [H+] < [OH-], then the pH > 7.





Measuring ph
Measuring pH

An indicator is a valuable tool for measuring pH because its acid form and base form have different colors in solution.

Phenolphthalein changes from colorless to pink at pH 7-9.



Strong and weak acids and bases
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

In general, strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution.

Weak acids ionize only slightly in aqueous solution.


Strong and weak acids and bases1
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Strong bases dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.

Weak bases react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base.