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PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES . WEEK OUTLINE: . Monday: Properties of Acids & Bases Tuesday: Acid Precipitation Wednesday: Properties of Acids & Bases Lab Stations Thursday: Neutralization Reactions Friday: Acid/Base Quiz Making an Indicator – Acids & Bases at Home Lab . NEXT WEEK: .

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Presentation Transcript
week outline
WEEK OUTLINE:
  • Monday: Properties of Acids & Bases
  • Tuesday: Acid Precipitation
  • Wednesday: Properties of Acids & Bases Lab Stations
  • Thursday: Neutralization Reactions
  • Friday: Acid/Base Quiz
    • Making an Indicator – Acids & Bases at Home Lab
next week
NEXT WEEK:
  • Monday (Dec 14): Review Class
  • Tuesday (Dec 15): Chemistry Test
  • Wednesday- Friday (Dec 16-18) Start Climate Change Unit
what do you think
WHAT DO YOU THINK?
  • Page 265: True or False?
  • Stomach acid can dissolve metals like a coin in a child’s stomach?
  • We all contribute to the production of acid precipitation?
  • Even diet soda drinks can cause tooth decay?
  • Medications for heartburn work by cooling the stomach?
  • All acids are dangerous?
  • Soft drinks can be used to make spilled drain cleaner safer?
properties of acids and bases
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES
  • Young children like to explore by putting things in their mouths
  • Occasionally objects get swallowed!
  • Coins are the most common object to be swallowed
  • Once in the stomach, the coin in bathed in a corrosive mixture that includes hydrochloric acid (HCl (aq)) and other digestive juices
  • The concentration of HCl in your stomach is about the same as ones we have used in class - what do you think happens to the coin?
properties of acids
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
  • Chemists classify substances by their properties
  • Acids - are substances that react with metals and carbonates, conduct electricity, turns blue litmus red, and neutralize bases
  • Acids also taste sour, but you should never taste chemicals in a lab!
  • Very useful in food industry - act as preservatives (vinegar and lemon juice)
properties of acids1
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
  • Reaction with Metals
  • Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas
    • Ex. hydrochloric acid + zinc → hydrogen gas + zinc chloride
      • 2HCl (aq) + Zn (s) → H2 (g) + ZnCl2 (aq)
properties of acids2
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
  • Reaction with Carbonates
    • Acids react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas
    • Ex. acetic acid + sodium hydrogen carbonate → carbon dioxide + water + sodium acetate
      • HC2H3O2 (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) → CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + NaC2H3O2 (aq)
properties of acids3
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Many acids are good conductors of electricity
  • A solution can only conduct electricity if it contains ions
  • Since acids are molecular compounds they do not contain ions
properties of acids4
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
  • Electrical Conductivity (Continued)
  • However, collisions with water molecules break acid molecules apart to form cations (hydrogen ions) and anions
  • Ex. Hydrochloric acid forms hydrogen and chloride ions:
    • HCl (aq) → H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
chemical formulas of acids
CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF ACIDS
  • All acids produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
  • Hydrogen ions give acids their properties
  • The chemical formula of an acid begins with an H and is usually followed by an “(aq)”
  • This is because an acid shows its properties when dissolved in water
  • Hydrogen chloride - gas that would dissolve in water in lungs when inhaled = forming highly corrosive hydrochloric acid
names of acids
NAMES OF ACIDS
  • Two common groups of acids:
    • Binary Acids (Table 1 Page 269)
names of acids1
NAMES OF ACIDS
  • Oxyacids – related to polyatomic ions (Table 2 Page 269)
properties of bases
PROPERTIES OF BASES
  • Bases -conduct electricity, change the colour of acid-base indicators, feel slippery and taste bitter
properties of bases1
PROPERTIES OF BASES
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Bases are electrolytes, meaning their solutions are good conductors of electricity
  • Ex. NaOH (sodium hydroxide) is an electrolyte because in water it separates into ions as it dissolves
    • NaOH (s) → Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
  • Many common bases are ionic compounds - they are made up of ions (unlike acids)
  • As they dissolve in water, their ions are released
colour with acid base indicators
COLOUR WITH ACID-BASE INDICATORS
  • A substance that changes colour depending on the acidity or basicity of the solution is known as an acid-base indicator
the ph scale
THE PH SCALE
  • pH scale - a numerical scale of all the possible values of pH from 0 to 14
  • pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
  • A solution with a pH of 7 is considered neutral
  • A solution with pH of less than 7 is considered acidic
  • A solution with pH of greater than 7 is considered basic
the ph scale continued
THE PH SCALE CONTINUED
  • Solutions with highest hydrogen ion concentration are near zero on pH scale
  • Solutions with highest concentrations of hydroxide ions are near 14 on pH scale
  • Can use the words “acidity” or “basicity” to describe the properties of acids or bases