INTRODUCTION • Feedback can be reinforcing when learning is correct and it can be corrective when learning is incorrect.
WHAT IS TRADITIONAL FEEDBACK ? • It is one-source feedback. • performance of the students are obtained from the teacher and feedback given to the student. • Individual faculty feedback Positively - ‘‘halo’’ effect Negatively - ‘‘millstone’’ effect ‘‘hit or miss’’ in terms of random observations. • Faculty not trained to give ‘‘effective’’ feedback
Collected systematically from a number of stakeholders and are used for improving their performance • Helps to observe behaviors, especially the ‘‘soft’’ areas of performance Leadership,Communications,Interpersonal skills, and negotiation. • This technique focuses on multiple perspectives – results are highly credible and a powerful tool
DEFINITION • The systematic collection and feedback of performance data on an individual or group, derived from a number of the stakeholders in their performance (Ward 1997,).
360 DEGREE ASSESSMENT ALSO CALLED AS • 360 feed back • Multi source feed back • Multi rater assessment • Full circle appraisal Assess competency and behaviour rather than personality.
HISTORY • Evidence shows tracing back to 20 century. • psychologists started exploring new methods for measuring performance and selecting employees. • In 1922 Walter Dill Scott, the director of the Committee on Classification of Personnel - US Army • Years later, new dimensions were included such as personality, originality, leadership, organizational ability, cooperativeness, ability to develop workers, and technical ability. • In the beginning of the 21st century secured place in medical field.
VALUES • 360-degree feedback provides a better understanding of individuals performance at work • It provides a multifaceted view • It provides a employee developmental needs • It Provides increased understanding about one's role expectations. • Provides increased understanding of competence and competency in various roles
VALUES • Increases the team's ability to contribute to the organizations goals • It helps to work for a common standard and institutionalize performance management. • It ensure better interpersonal relationship and group cohesiveness • It promotes self-directed learning and development planning. • It promotes better Communication within departments
Assess the six core competencies, especially useful in assessing interpersonal skills, communications skills, and professionalism. 1.Patient Care 2.Knowledge 3.Practice-Based Learning and Improvement 4.Interpersonal and Communication Skills 5.Professionalism 6.Systems-Based Practice
Survey or questionnaire to gather information in several areas • knowledge base and skills • task proficiency and teamwork, • Decision making, use of information technology, and facilitation of learning by other team members
“Gap Analysis” ‘‘Gap analysis’’
PURPOSES • Developing insight into strengths and weaknesses, for the individual • Enhancing culture change • Summative assessment of performance • Evaluating the potential of individuals, • Enhancing team effectiveness • Identifying training needs for the system
DIMENSIONS • Problem solving • Planning and organizing • Adaptability • Communication • Supervisory skills • Administrative skills • Analytical skills.
PREREQUISITES • Top Management Support • Confidence of employees • Objectives need to be clearly stated - Performance • A detailed plan of implementation • Collaboration between superior and subordinates • Prior experimentation and positive experiences • Clear organizational philosophy and policy objectives
COMPONENTS 360 assessment
SELF APPRAISAL • self-appraisal is considered a vital factor, own feedback or ideas, points and work. • Rates himself based on a number of parameters. Demands for training, His achievements, Strong points and weak points, Current difficulties…
CAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN • The self-ratings tend to be consistently higher. This discrepancy can lead to defensiveness and alienation if supervisors do not use good feedback skills. • Sometimes self-ratings can be lower than others’. In such situations, employees tend to be self-demeaning and may feel intimidated and “put on the spot.” • Self-ratings should focus on the appraisal of performance elements, not on the summary level determination.
SELF ASSESSMENT CONTD… • Be honest: should not overstate your strong points or ignore your weak points. • Well prepared • Be objective • Positive attitude • Cover all the aspects
SUPERVISOR It’s Contribution: • The 1st line supervisor is often in the best position to effectively carry out the full cycle of performance management. • The supervisor will have the broadest perspective on the work requirements
CAUTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED: • Superiors should be able to observe and make a fair evaluation. • Supervisors should be trained. • They should be capable of coaching as well as planning and evaluating their performance.
SUBORDINATES • This feedback gives supervisors comprehensive picture of employee issues and needs. • Employees feel they have a greater voice in organizational decision-making. • Effective in evaluating the supervisor’s interpersonal skills. • Combining subordinate ratings, like peer ratings, can provide the advantage of creating a composite appraisal.
CAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN • The need for anonymity is essential when using subordinate ratings as this will ensure honest feedback. • Supervisors may feel threatened and perceive that their authority has been undermined. • Subordinate feedback is most beneficial when used for developmental purposes. • Only subordinates with a sufficient length of assignment under the manager should be included in the pool of assessors.
PEER ASSESSMENT • Excellent predictors of future performance and “manner of performance”. • This tends to average out the possible biases of any one member of the group of raters. • The increased use of self-directed teams makes the contribution of peer evaluations the central input to the formal appraisal • The addition of peer feedback can help move the supervisor into a coaching role rather than a purely judging role.
CAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN • Appropriate for developmental purposes, but to emphasize them for pay, promotion, or job retention purposes. • It is essential that the peer evaluators be very familiar with the team member’s tasks and responsibilities. • The use of peer evaluations can be very time consuming. • Depending on the culture of the organization, peer ratings have the potential for creating tension and breakdown rather than fostering cooperation and support.
1. FOR INDIVIDUAL • Uncovers hidden lights and blind spots. • Feedback from a number of different people is more likely to be accepted. • Helps individuals gain a realistic view of how others perceive them. • Inspires people to take ownership of their own learning and development. • Provides feedback in a quantifiable form on a structured range of behaviors.
2.FOR THE TEAM • It helps people understand how their behavior influences both their own personal effectiveness and organization. • Supports teamwork by involving team members in the development process. • Increases communication between team members. • Higher levels of trust and better communication as individuals identify the causes of breakdowns. • Increased team effectiveness.
FOR THE ORGANIZATION • Better career development planning and implementation for employees. • Improves customer service by having customers contribute to the evaluation process. • Reinforced corporate culture by linking survey items to organizational leadership competencies and company values. • Helps with training needs analysis.
A detailed plan of action, • Effective follow-up is the prime requirement • It is time and cost consuming process. • The trust and confidence of the feedback report. • The process involves a lot of paper work. • There are high chances of subjectivity • Since the assessment is based on qualitative data many times it cannot ensure unambiguous, clear, specific, and observable and quantifiable formats.
360 ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION • Academic institutions increasingly incorporate broad competency frameworks and outcome assessment processes. • Graduated students will need competencies beyond the traditional knowledge • As professionals, they will require skills to function in multidisciplinary teams, • work with complex globally-based systems of products and services, and strive towards continuous self learning.
Contd…… • personal strengths and areas in need of development. • Evaluative information on a target student from two or more sources. • The Student provides self-ratings that are subsequently compared with those from the other sources. • The student receives feedback on the behaviors, skills, and performance. • The student interprets the feedback and make decisions on actions that should be taken based on the information provided.
IMPACT ON STUDENT LEARNING There is growing evidence that feedback processes have a positive impact on student learning and attitudes. • Students shows improvement based on perceptions of peers and faculty. • Second, the fact that the information is presented as part of a formal feedback system sends a strong message to students that performance should be improved.
IMPLICATIONS • First, practice to be addressed is the linking of the multisource assessment process to intended student learning outcomes. • The second, critical implementation issue is to determine up front what communication needs to be provided to the students. • Students need a structured post-feedback process if significant learning is to occur. • Finally, report data can be presented in ways to help the student focus on strengths and areas in need of improvement.
TOOLS TO ASSESS • Mini clinical evaluation exercise (Mini – CEX) • Case based discussion (CbD) • Direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) • Mini peer assessment tool (mini – PAT) • Team assessment behaviour (TAB)
I. MINI CEX • The mini-CEX was designed to assess the clinical skills, attitude, and behaviours of students to provide high quality patient care. • The mini-CEX is designed as a 15-20 minute snapshot of a student /patient interaction • 15 minutes for observation • Five minutes for feedback
MINI-CEX: AREAS TO ASSESSED • Interviewing Skills • Physical Examination Skills • Humanistic Qualities/Professionalism • Clinical Judgment • Counselling Skills • Organization/Efficiency • Overall Clinical Competence 4 point scale Ranges from Outstanding, satisfactory, Development required and Not assessed
MINI CEX contd…. How Many Mini-CEXs ? On average, a minimum of four mini-CEXs per student over the year.
II. CASE BASED DISCUSSION • This method is designed to assess clinical judgement, decision-making and the application of knowledge in relation to patient care in cases for which the trainee has been directly responsible. • The method is particularly designed to test higher order thinking and synthesis as it allows assessors to explore deeper understanding of how trainees compile, prioritise and apply knowledge. • CBD is not focused on the trainees’ ability to make a diagnosis nor is it a viva-style assessment.
AREA TO ASSESS • 1. Patient record keeping • 2. Clinical assessment • 3. Diagnostic skills and underlying knowledge base • 4. Management and follow-up planning • 5. Clinical judgement and decision making • 6. Communication and team working skills • 7. Leadership skills • 8. Reflective practice/writing 4 point scale Ranges from Outstanding, satisfactory, Development required and Not assessed
It uses patient records as the basis for dialogue, for systematic assessment and structured feedback. • Most assessments take no longer than 15-20 minutes.
After completing the discussion and filling in the assessment form, the assigned educational supervisor should provide immediate feedback to the trainee. • Feedback would normally take about 5 minutes
III. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF PROCEDURAL SKILLS • Direct observation of procedural skills is designed to help your seniors give you feedback on procedures that you do. • DOPS is designed to provide feedback on your skills at doing procedures. • Student have to undertake six observed encounters during the year with a different observer for each encounter.