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Unit 1: History of Medicine. A brief overview of where we’ve been. 2000 B.C.—Here, eat this root. 1000 A.D.—That root is heathen. Here, say this prayer. 1850 A.D.—That prayer is superstition. Here, drink this potion. 1920 A.D.—That potion is snake oil. Here, swallow this pill.

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unit 1 history of medicine

Unit 1: History of Medicine

A brief overview of where we’ve been

slide2

2000 B.C.—Here, eat this root.

  • 1000 A.D.—That root is heathen. Here, say this prayer.
  • 1850 A.D.—That prayer is superstition. Here, drink this potion.
  • 1920 A.D.—That potion is snake oil. Here, swallow this pill.
  • 1945 A.D.—That pill is ineffective. Here, take this penicillin.
  • 1955 A.D.—Oops . . . bugs mutated. Here, take this tetracycline.
  • 1960–1999—39 more “oops.” Here, take this more powerful antibiotic.
  • 2000 A.D.—The bugs have won! Here, eat this root.
    • World Health Organization
medicine s beginnings
Medicine’s Beginnings
  • Started off as prayers and rituals
    • Shaman
  • Rituals used to cure ailments
    • Drumming and chanting
    • Amulets and charms
    • Trepanning…
medicine s beginnings cont d
Medicine’s Beginnings cont’d
  • Man began to use accessible materials
    • Clay
    • Plants/Herbs
    • Mushrooms
  • Ate foods for effect
  • Grind plants for substance
medicine s beginnings cont d1
Medicine’s Beginnings cont’d
  • Cannabis (Cannabis sativa)
  • Coca (Erythroxylon coca)
  • Daffodil (Narcissus spp.)
  • Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna)
  • English yew (Taxusbaccata)
  • Fever tree (Cinchona succiruba)
  • Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
  • Opium poppy (Papaversomniferum)
  • Rubbertree(Heveabrasiliensis)
  • Willow (Salix spp.)
egyptian medicine
Egyptian Medicine
  • First civilization to keep accurate medical records
  • Described diseases
  • Recorded remedies
    • Contraceptives
    • Headaches
    • Skin/Hair Conditions
egyptian medicine cont d
Egyptian Medicine Cont’d
  • Numerous Contributions
    • Splinting fractures
    • Recordkeeping
    • Disease diagnosis and remedy

***Recording and sharing information

greek medicine
Greek Medicine
  • Began as Gods healing
    • Asclepius
    • Apollo
    • Hygieia
  • Hippocrates
    • Cause and effect
    • Changes in diet, drugs
    • Keeping in balance
greek medicine cont d
Greek medicine cont’d
  • Four humors of the body
    • Blood
    • Phlegm
    • Yellow Bile
    • Black Bile
  • Restoring balance cures disease
    • Bloodletting
    • Purging
hippocratic oath
Hippocratic Oath
  • Establishes patient confidentiality
  • No mercy killings
  • Do not perform an abortion
  • No seducing men or women
  • Assign the proper diet
  • Physicians/teachers of medicine are equal to family

***Not presently required by most medical schools

other greeks
Other Greeks
  • Aristotle
    • Direct observation is more powerful
    • Dissection for comparative anatomy
  • Galen
    • Controlled physiological experiments
    • Experimented on kidneys and spinal cord
    • Larynx (voicebox), circulatory system, respiratory system, brain nerves
    • Cataract surgery
roman contributions
Roman Contributions
  • Aqueducts brought clean water
    • Sanitation
  • Sewer systems to carry off waste
  • Public baths with filtered water
roman physicians
Roman Physicians
  • Battlefield medicine
    • First to send physicians with each legion
    • Used “traveling hospitals”
  • Paid by the government
  • Central buildings of care (first hospitals)
    • Started as rooms in physician’s house
    • Became entire buildings of sick people
dark ages
Dark Ages
  • Romans conquered
  • Cooperative medicine stops
  • Manuscripts preserved in monasteries
    • Watch and protect rather than cure
  • Epidemics
    • Bubonic Plague (Black Plague) killed millions
    • Smallpox, diphtheria, syphilis, tuberculosis
renaissance
Renaissance
  • “Revival” of Greek and Roman texts
    • More consistent and “modern” scientific method
  • Medical schools
  • Dissection became acceptable
  • Printing press made sharing information easy
    • Widespread knowledge allows for advancement
17 th century
17th Century
  • Vesalius – Human anatomy
    • Numerous dissections led to accurate drawings
  • Leeuwenhoek – Microorganisms
    • Showed that organisms are everywhere
  • Da Vinci – Human anatomy
    • Worked extensively on proportions of the body
    • Anatomical drawings (interior and exterior)
18 th century
18th Century
  • New ways of learning
    • Students attended lectures and met patients bedside
    • Dissections after diseases helped to understand physiology
  • Advances in identifying causes
    • Examine environment
  • Vaccines developed
    • Smallpox
19 th century
19th Century
  • Hand-washing in hospitals
    • Preventing microorganisms from growing
  • Bacteria come from the environment
    • Can harm humans
    • Cause of many diseases
    • Washing/cleaning wounds during surgery
19 th century cont d
19th Century cont’d
  • Anesthetics became reliable
    • Previously herbs, alcohol, and drugs
    • Went into shock from pain
    • People often died from overdose
  • Rise of the Nurse
    • Present in battlefield
    • Raised standard of care before/after surgery
  • Immunizations became widespread
    • Were able to use vaccines to control many diseases